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The impact of federal social policies on spatial income inequalities in Germany : empirical evidence from social security data

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  • Bruckmeier, Kerstin

    ()
    (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])

  • Schwengler, Barbara

    ()
    (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])

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    Abstract

    "Almost twenty years after German reunification there are still huge income disparities between western and eastern regions in Germany. The main purpose of the paper is to show how social transfer payments reduce these inter-regional disparities. In a first step we examine inequalities in the distribution of gross income from dependent employment and self-employment at the small-area level of 439 NUTS-3 units. Our distributional analysis quantifies regional wage inequalities driven by economic disparities and different patterns of employment. A decomposition analysis reveals that large wage differentials exist not only between eastern and western Germany but also within western regions. Furthermore we estimate the income effects of the German unemployment and pension insurance using different sources of social security data at regional level. The results indicate large regional redistributive effects across areas: the share of social benefits and payments as a percentage of total net income ranges from 11 per cent to 41 per cent. Like other European states, Germany faces several problems concerning its welfare system. Recent reforms of the welfare system in 2004 and 2005 also affected some core principles of social security. Our results show that changing parameters of eligibility, claims and financing will influence the spatial income distribution. Hence further research on this topic is recommended when data for 2005 and later years are available." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany] in its series IAB Discussion Paper with number 200901.

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    Length: 35 pages
    Date of creation: 08 Jan 2009
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200901

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    Keywords: Sozialpolitik; Verteilungseffekte; Einkommenseffekte; regionale Disparität; Einkommenshöhe; Einkommensentwicklung; regionaler Vergleich; Sozialversicherung; Sozialausgaben; Sozialleistungen; Transferleistung; Lohnhöhe; Arbeitslosenversicherung; Rentenversicherung; abhängig Beschäftigte; Selbständige; Einkommensverteilung; Ostdeutschland; Westdeutschland; Bundesrepublik Deutschland;

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    References

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    1. Steven Brakman & Harry Garretsen & Marc Schramm, 2004. "The Spatial Distribution of Wages: Estimating the Helpman-Hanson Model for Germany," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 437-466.
    2. Schwarze, Johannes, 1996. "How Income Inequality Changed in Germany following Reunification: An Empirical Analysis Using Decomposable Inequality Measures," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(1), pages 1-11, March.
    3. Michael Funke & Roberta Colavecchio & Declan Curran, 2011. "Drifting together of falling apart? The empirics of regional economic growth in post-unification Germany," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 21102, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
    4. Rice, Patricia & Venables, Anthony J. & Patacchini, Eleonora, 2006. "Spatial determinants of productivity: Analysis for the regions of Great Britain," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 727-752, November.
    5. Joachim R. Frick & Jan Goebel, 2005. "Regional Income Stratification in Unified Germany using a Gini Decomposition Approach," Working Papers 15, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    6. Heather Dickey, 2007. "Regional Earnings Inequality In Great Britain: Evidence From Quantile Regressions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(4), pages 775-806.
    7. Martin Biewen, 2002. "The Covariance Structure of East and West German Incomes and its Implications for the Persistence of Poverty and Inequality," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 292, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Johannes Gernandt & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 227(4), pages 358-380, August.
    9. Jenkins, Stephen P, 1995. "Accounting for Inequality Trends: Decomposition Analyses for the UK, 1971-86," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 62(245), pages 29-63, February.
    10. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
    11. Karl Brenke, 2006. "Zunehmende regionale Einkommensunterschiede in Deutschland, aber starke Ausgleichswirkungen durch Pendlereinkommen und Sozialtransfers," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(11), pages 141-150.
    12. Reinhold Kosfeld & Hans-Friedrich Eckey & Jorgen Lauridsen, 2008. "Disparities in Prices and Income across German NUTS 3 Regions," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 54(2), pages 123-141.
    13. Uwe Blien, 2003. "Formula allocation: The regional allocation of budgetary funds for measures of active labour market policy in Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa03p211, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
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