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The Circumplex Theory of National Pride


Author Info

  • Meulders, Michel

    (Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUB), Belgium)

  • De Boeck, Paul

    (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium)

  • Realo, Anu

    (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium)

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    National pride in 22 countries, reported in probability surveys of the International Social Survey Programme of 1995 on national identity is shown to be based on four sources of national pride: internal care (IC), nowadays and past achievements (NA and PA), and external power (EP). The proportion of repondents who are proud of these basic sources differs among countries: (1) being proud of IC is more common in countries with a high level of democracy and a well-developed social welfare system, (2) people are most likely to be proud of NA in economically well-developed countries, (3) pride in PA is especially high in countries that lack pride in NA, and (4) pride in EP is greatest in countries with powerful armed forces. Furthermore, being proud of NA correlates positively with gross national product whereas the reverse holds for being proud of PA. Interpersonal trust, postmaterialist values, subjective well-being and life satisfaction are shown to be strong positive correlates of pride in IC and less strong, but still positive, correlates of pride in NA.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economie en Management in its series Working Papers with number 2009/41.

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    Length: 31 page
    Date of creation: Dec 2009
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hub:wpecon:200941

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    Related research

    Keywords: national pride; national identity; probabilistic feature model; cross-national study; International Social Survey Programme;


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    1. Eric Maris & Paul Boeck & Iven Mechelen, 1996. "Probability matrix decomposition models," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 7-29, March.
    2. Michel Meulders & Paul De Boeck & Iven Van Mechelen & Andrew Gelman, 2005. "Probabilistic feature analysis of facial perception of emotions," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 54(4), pages 781-793.
    3. Michel Meulders & Paul Boeck & Iven Mechelen, 2003. "A taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition models," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 68(1), pages 61-77, March.
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