Effects of Human Capital on Farm and Non-Farm Productivity and Occupational Stratification in Rural Pakistan
AbstractThis paper investigates the effects of human capital on productivity using micro panel data of rural households in the NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan, where a substantial job stratification is observed in terms of income and education. To clarify the mechanism underlying this stratification, the human capital effects are estimated for wages(individual level) and for self-employed activities(household level), and for farm and non-farm sectors. Estimation results show a clear contrast between farm and non-farm sectors - wages and productivity in non-farm activities rise with education at an increasing rate, whereas those in agriculture respond only to the primary education.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number d04-46.
Date of creation: Nov 2004
Date of revision:
human capital; returns to education; non-farm employment; self-employment;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2004-12-12 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2004-12-12 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2004-12-12 (Development)
- NEP-LAB-2004-12-12 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dennis Tao Yang, 1997.
"Education in Production: Measuring Labor Quality and Management,"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 764-772.
- Yang, Dennis T., 1995. "Education in Production: Measuring Labor Quality and Management," Working Papers 95-56, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Rakhshanda, Kousar & Awudu, Abdulai, 2013. "Impacts of rural non-farm employment on household welfare in Pakistan," 2013 Second Congress, June 6-7, 2013, Parma, Italy 149890, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
- ERREYGERS, Guido & FEREDE, Tadele, 2009. "The end of subsistence farming: Growth dynamics and investments in human and environmental capital in rural Ethiopia," Working Papers 2009008, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
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