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Nonparametric Identification and Estimation of the Number of Components in Multivariate Mixtures

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  • Kazuko Kano
  • Takashi Kano
  • Kazutaka Takechi
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    Abstract

    This study investigates the effect of distance on price differentials across regions. To identify the distance effect, we need to incorporate producer heterogeneity and pricing-to-market behavior. Because geographic barriers alter the threshold levels of productivity to set a positive price across markets, the effect of distance on price differentials can be underestimated if heterogeneity and pricing to market are not accounted for. By incorporating these factors, empirical analysis using micro-level data reveals that the distance effect is significantly large, suggesting that the price of geographic barriers is still high for regional transportation.

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    File URL: http://gcoe.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/research/discussion/2008/pdf/gd12-246.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number gd12-246.

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    Date of creation: Oct 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:hst:ghsdps:gd12-246

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    Related research

    Keywords: law of one price; transportation costs; geographic barriers; producer heterogeneity; pricing to market;

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    1. Alan M. Taylor & Paul Bergin & Reuven Glick, 2005. "Productivity, Tradability, and the Long-Run Price Puzzle," Working Papers 511, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    2. Andrew Atkeson & Ariel Burstein, 2007. "Pricing-to-market, trade costs, and international relative prices," Working Paper Series 2007-26, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    3. Ina Simonovska & Michael Waugh, 2011. "The Elasticity of Trade: Estimates and Evidence," Working Papers 112, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    4. Matthieu Crozet & Pamina Koenig, 2008. "Structural Gravity Equations with Intensive and Extensive Margins," Working Papers 2008-30, CEPII research center.
    5. Kazuko Kano & Takashi Kano & Kazutaka Takechi, 2010. "Exaggerated Death of Distance: Revisiting Distance Effects on Regional Price Dispersions," Working Paper Series 162, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    6. David Hummels, 2007. "Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 131-154, Summer.
    7. Russell H. Hillberry & Edward J. Balistreri & Thomas F. Rutherford, 2007. "Structural Estimation and Solution of International Trade Models with Heterogeneous Firms," DEGIT Conference Papers c012_038, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    8. Engel, Charles & Rogers, John H, 1996. "How Wide Is the Border?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1112-25, December.
    9. Andrew B Bernard & Jonathan Eaton & J. Bradford Jensen & Samuel Kortum, 2000. "Plants and productivity in international trade," Working Papers 00-08, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    10. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, 2005. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 11393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    12. Costas Arkolakis & Arnaud Costinot & Andres Rodriguez-Clare, 2012. "New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(1), pages 94-130, February.
    13. Ina Simonovska, 2010. "Income differences and prices of tradables," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 55, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    14. Mario J. Crucini & Mototsugu Shintani & Takayuki Tsuruga, 2009. "The Law of One Price Without the Border: The Role of Distance Versus Sticky Prices," NBER Working Papers 14835, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Miren Lafourcade, 2005. "Transport costs: measures, determinants, and regional policy implications for France," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(3), pages 319-349, June.
    16. Dave Donaldson, 2010. "Railroads of the Raj: Estimating the Impact of Transportation Infrastructure," NBER Working Papers 16487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. David Hummels & Alexandre Skiba, 2002. "Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture," NBER Working Papers 9023, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 2002. "Technology, Geography, and Trade," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1741-1779, September.
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