Costs of Financial Distress, Delayed Calls of Convertible Bonds, and the Role of Investment Banks
AbstractIn a frictionless market with perfect information, a shareholder-wealth- maximizing firm should force conversion of its convertible bond issue into stock as soon as the bond comes in-the-money. Firms however appear to systematically delay forced conversion, sometimes for years, beyond this time. We show that the observed delays can be plausibly explained in terms of costs to shareholders of a failed conversion and the ensuing financial distress. Firms delay the forced conversion to avoid the self-fulfilling outcome that bondholders expect the conversion to fail, tender their bonds for cash, and the stock price falls to account for the costs of financial distress, in which case tendering for cash is in fact optimal. Unlike other explanations of delayed forced conversion, we can explain the common use of investment banks to underwrite these transactions, since the banks can eliminate the self-fulfilling bad outcome.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Harvard University Department of Economics in its series Scholarly Articles with number 3606238.
Date of creation: 1990
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Journal of Business -Chicago-
Other versions of this item:
- Jaffee, Dwight & Shleifer, Andrei, 1990. "Costs of Financial Distress, Delayed Calls of Convertible Bonds, and the Role of Investment Banks," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages S107-23, January.
- Dwight Jaffee & Andrei Shleifer, 1988. "Costs Of Financial Distress, Delayed Calls Of Convertible Bonds, And The Role Of Investment Banks," NBER Working Papers 2558, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. " Do Demand Curves for Stocks Slope Down?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(3), pages 579-90, July.
- Warner, Jerold B, 1977. "Bankruptcy Costs: Some Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 337-47, May.
- Dann, Larry Y. & Mikkelson, Wayne H., 1984. "Convertible debt issuance, capital structure change and financing-related information : Some new evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 157-186, June.
- Mikkelson, Wayne H., 1981. "Convertible calls and security returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 237-264, September.
- Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
- Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1985. " A Sequential Signalling Model of Convertible Debt Call Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(5), pages 1263-81, December.
- Scruggs, John T., 2007. "Estimating the cross-sectional market response to an endogenous event: Naked vs. underwritten calls of convertible bonds," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 220-247, March.
- Altintig, Z. Ayca & Butler, Alexander W., 2005. "Are they still called late? The effect of notice period on calls of convertible bonds," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 337-350, March.
- Isagawa, Nobuyuki, 2000. "Convertible debt: an effective financial instrument to control managerial opportunism," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 15-26.
- Bajo, Emanuele & Barbi, Massimiliano, 2012. "The role of time value in convertible bond call policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 550-563.
- Bruce D. Grundy & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2012. "Dividend-Protected Convertible Bonds and the Disappearance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-060/2/DSF37, Tinbergen Institute.
- Stein, Jeremy C., 1992.
"Convertible bonds as backdoor equity financing,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 3-21, August.
- Kim, Yong O. & Kallberg, Jarl, 1998. "Convertible calls and corporate taxes under asymmetric information," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 19-40, January.
- repec:dgr:uvatin:2012060 is not listed on IDEAS
- Asquith, Paul, 1948-, 1992. "Convertible debt--a dynamic test of call policy," Working papers 3413-92., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Sarkar, Sudipto, 2003. "Early and late calls of convertible bonds: Theory and evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1349-1374, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Reinhard Engels).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.