Women, Children, and Industrialization in the Early Republic: Evidence from the Manufacturing Censuses
AbstractManufacturing firm data for 1820 to 1850 are employed to investigate the role of women and children in the industrialization of the American Northeast. The principal findings include: (1) Women and children composed a major share of the entire manufacturing labor force; (2) their employment was closely associated with production processes used by large establishments, both mechanized and non-mechanized; (3) the wage of females (and boys) increased relative to that of men with industrial development; and (4) female labor force participation in industrial counties was substantial. These findings bear on the nature of technical change during early industrialization and why American industrial development was initially concentrated in the Northeast.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Harvard University Department of Economics in its series Scholarly Articles with number 2664292.
Date of creation: 1982
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Journal of Economic History
Other versions of this item:
- Goldin, Claudia & Sokoloff, Kenneth, 1982. "Women, Children, and Industrialization in the Early Republic: Evidence from the Manufacturing Censuses," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(04), pages 741-774, December.
- Claudia Goldin & Kenneth Sokoloff, 1981. "Women, Children, and Industrialization in the Early Republic: Evidence from the Manufacturing Censuses," UCLA Economics Working Papers, UCLA Department of Economics 220, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Claudia Goldin & Kenneth L. Sokoloff, 1981. "Women, Children, and Industrialization in the Early Republic: Evidence from the Manufacturing Censuses," NBER Working Papers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc 0795, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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