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The Effects of Collateral on SME Performance in Japan

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  • Ono, Arito
  • Sakai, Koji
  • Uesugi, Iichiro

Abstract

This paper examines how collateral and personal guarantees affect firms' ex-post performance employing the propensity score matching estimation approach. Based on a unique firm-level panel data set of more than 500 small-and-medium-sized borrower firms in Japan, we find the following. (1) The increase in profitability and reduction in riskiness of borrowers that provide collateral to lenders are more sizeable than of borrowers that do not. (2) On the other hand, the lending attitude and monitoring frequency of borrowers' main bank do not change significantly at the time of collateral being pledged. (3) The increase in profitability of collateralized borrowers is driven by cost reductions rather than by sales growth. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that by providing collateral, borrowers curb their own incentives for moral hazard in order to further enhance their creditworthiness.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series PIE/CIS Discussion Paper with number 401.

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Length: 39 p.
Date of creation: Sep 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hit:piecis:401

Note: This draft: September 2008; Initial draft: February 2008
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Keywords: collateral; moral hazard; propensity score;

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References

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  1. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
  2. Stanley D. Longhofer & João A. C. Santos, 1999. "The importance of bank seniority for relationship lending," Proceedings 620, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  3. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M, 2006. "A Lender-Based Theory of Collateral," CEPR Discussion Papers 5695, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-89, October.
  5. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V & Udell, Gregory F, 1991. "Secured Lending and Default Risk: Equilibrium Analysis, Policy Implications and Empirical Results," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 458-72, May.
  6. Caliendo, Marco & Kopeinig, Sabine, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," IZA Discussion Papers 1588, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Manove, Michael & Padilla, A Jorge & Pagano, Marco, 2001. "Collateral versus Project Screening: A Model of Lazy Banks," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 726-44, Winter.
  8. Jimenez, Gabriel & Saurina, Jesus, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2191-2212, September.
  9. Jimenez, Gabriel & Salas, Vicente & Saurina, Jesus, 2006. "Determinants of collateral," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 255-281, August.
  10. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  11. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  12. Ono, Arito & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2008. "The Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper 371, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  13. Gabriel Jiménez & Jesús Saurina, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0414, Banco de Espa�a.
  14. Arito Ono & Iichiro Uesugi, 2009. "Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 935-960, 08.
  15. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 1990. "Collateral, loan quality and bank risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 21-42, January.
  16. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
  17. Rajan, Raghuram & Winton, Andrew, 1995. " Covenants and Collateral as Incentives to Monitor," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1113-46, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Raphael W. Lam & Jongsoon Shin, 2012. "What Role Can Financial Policies Play in Revitalizing SMEs in Japan?," IMF Working Papers 12/291, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Cadot, Julien, 2011. "Collaterals, Bank Monitoring and Performance: the Case of Newly Established Wine Farmers," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103414, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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