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The Determinants of Venture Capital: A Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries

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  • Romain, Astrid
  • Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of venture capital (VC). We develop a theoretical model where three main types of factors affect the demand and supply of VC. These factors are related to macroeconomic conditions, research efforts and technological opportunity, and the entrepreneurial environment. The model is evaluated econometrically with a panel dataset of 16 major OECD countries over the period 1990-1998. The estimates confirm that VC intensity is highly pro-cyclical - it reacts positively and significantly to GDP growth. Short-term (one-year) interest rates have a positive impact on VC intensity, which means that they affect more the demand side of VC (entrepreneurs) than the supply side. Indicators of technological opportunity, such as the growth rate of R&D investment, the stock of knowledge and the number of triadic patents affect positively and significantly the relative level of VC. The factors associated with the entrepreneurial environment also explain a substantial part of cross-country variations in VC intensity. An increase in corporate income tax rate has a negative effect on VC intensity. Labour market rigidities reduce the impact of the GDP growth rate and of the stock of knowledge, whereas a minimum level of entrepreneurship is required in order to have a positive effect of the available stock of knowledge on VC intensity. One important policy implication emerges from these results. It is not by providing money for VC that public decision makers will stimulate VC, but by providing knowledge and improving the entrepreneurial environment.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series IIR Working Paper with number 03-25.

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Length: 18 p.
Date of creation: Dec 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hit:iirwps:03-25

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Related research

Keywords: Venture Capital; Technological Opportunity; Entrepreneurship; Labour Market Rigidities;

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References

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  1. Astrid Romain & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2004. "The economic impact of venture capital," Working Papers CEB 04-014.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Dominique Guellec & Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2001. "R&D and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2001/3, OECD Publishing.
  3. José Martí Pellón & Marina Balboa, 2001. "Determinants Of Private Equity Fundraising In Western Europe," Working Papers. Serie AD 2001-15, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  4. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
  5. Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2000. "The Interaction between Product Market and Financing Strategy: The Role of Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 959-84.
  6. James M. Poterba, 1988. "Venture Capital and Capital Gains Taxation," Working papers 508, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  7. Hellmann, Thomas F. & Puri, Manju, 2000. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Research Papers 1661, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  8. Jeng, Leslie A. & Wells, Philippe C., 2000. "The determinants of venture capital funding: evidence across countries," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 241-289, September.
  9. Manigart, Sophie & De Waele, Koen & Wright, Mike & Robbie, Ken & Desbrieres, Philippe & Sapienza, Harry J. & Beekman, Amy, 2002. "Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 291-312, July.
  10. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  11. Engel, Dirk, 2002. "The Impact of Venture Capital on Firm Growth: An Empirical Investigation," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-02, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Groh, Alexander Peter & von Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Lieser, Karsten, 2010. "The European Venture Capital and Private Equity country attractiveness indices," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 205-224, April.
  2. Groh, Alexander P. & Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Canela, Miguel A., 2008. "Limited partners' perceptions of the Central Eastern European venture capital and private equity market," IESE Research Papers D/727, IESE Business School.
  3. Kerstin Bernoth & Roberta Colavecchio & Magdolna Sass, 2010. "Drivers of Private Equity Investment in CEE and Western European Countries," Working Paper / FINESS 3.5, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Groh, Alexander P. & Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Lieser, Karsten, 2008. "The European venture capital and private equity country attractiveness index(es)," IESE Research Papers D/773, IESE Business School.
  5. van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno & Romain, Astrid, 2004. "The Economic Impact of Venture Capital," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,18, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  6. Lazarevski, Dimche & Mrsik, Jadranka & Smokvarski, Edi, 2012. "Evolution of the venture capital financing for growing small and medium enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe countries: the case of Macedonia," MPRA Paper 41997, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Aizenman, Joshua & Kendall, Jake, 2008. "The Internationalization of Venture Capital and Private Equity," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3vh3n83p, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  8. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Engel, Nico & Reiner, Uwe, 2013. "The performance of venture capital investments: Do investors overreact?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 20-35.
  9. Groh, Alexander P. & Liectenstein, Heinrich, 2009. "The first step of the capital flow from institutions to entrepreneurs: The criteria for sorting venture capital funds," IESE Research Papers D/795, IESE Business School.
  10. Roland Füss & Denis Schweizer, 2012. "Short and long-term interactions between venture capital returns and the macroeconomy: evidence for the United States," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 391-410, April.
  11. Groh, Alexander P., 2009. "Private equity in emerging markets," IESE Research Papers D/779, IESE Business School.
  12. Mihaela Diaconu, 2013. "The Financing Of R&D: Challenges For Romanian Firms," Studies and Scientific Researches. Economics Edition, "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacau, Faculty of Economic Sciences, issue 18.
  13. Groh, Alexander Peter & von Liechtenstein, Heinrich, 2009. "How attractive is central Eastern Europe for risk capital investors?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 625-647, June.

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