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EU Enlargement, Parallel Trade and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals - What’s to Blame? Derogation or Perception?

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Author Info

  • Granlund, David

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Umeå University)

  • Yesim Köksal, Miyase

    ()
    (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg)

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    Abstract

    Given the cost of trade and availability of pharmaceuticals, the driving force for parallel trade is the price difference between the source (exporting) and the destination (importing) country. An increase in the price difference or in the availability of pharmaceuticals for parallel trade should increase price competition in the destination country. Using 2003-2007 data from Sweden we investigated whether EU enlargement in 2004, when new countries with low pharmaceutical prices joined the EU, increased competition from parallel imports. Drugs facing competition from parallel imports are found to have on average 17% to 21% lower prices than they would have had if they had never faced such competition. But, contrary to expectation, EU enlargement is not found to have increased this effect, which might be explained by derogations and changes in consumer perceptions of parallel imports.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Umeå University, Department of Economics in its series Umeå Economic Studies with number 831.

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    Length: 28 pages
    Date of creation: 16 Sep 2011
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:umnees:0831

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    Postal: Department of Economics, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
    Phone: 090 - 786 61 42
    Fax: 090 - 77 23 02
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    Web page: http://www.econ.umu.se/
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    Related research

    Keywords: EU enlargement; parallel trade; pharmaceuticals; price competition;

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    References

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    1. Izabela Jelovac & Catalina Bordoy, 2005. "Pricing and Welfare Implications of Parallel Imports in the Pharmaceutical Industry," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-21, January.
    2. Brekke, Kurt R. & Grasdal, Astrid L. & Holms, Tor Helge, 2009. "Regulation and pricing of pharmaceuticals: Reference pricing or price cap regulation?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 170-185, February.
    3. Ganslandt, Mattias & Maskus, Keith E., 2004. "Parallel Import and the Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products: Evidence from the European Union," Working Paper Series 622, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    4. Granlund, David & Yesim Köksal, Miyase, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform: A kick or a muff for price competition in pharmaceuticals," Working Papers in Economics 496, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    5. Pecorino, Paul, 2002. "Should the US allow prescription drug reimports from Canada?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 699-708, July.
    6. Keith E. Maskus & Yongmin Chen, 2004. "Vertical Price Control and Parallel Imports: Theory and Evidence," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 551-570, 09.
    7. Margaret K. Kyle, 2007. "Strategic Responses to Parallel Trade," NBER Working Papers 12968, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Granlund, David & Köksal, Miyase Yesim, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform - A Kick or A Muff for Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals?," HUI Working Papers 49, HUI Research.
    9. Mark E Schaffer, 2005. "XTIVREG2: Stata module to perform extended IV/2SLS, GMM and AC/HAC, LIML and k-class regression for panel data models," Statistical Software Components S456501, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 24 Jul 2012.
    10. Granlund, David & Köksal , Miyase Yesim, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform - A Kick or A Muff for Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals?," UmeÃ¥ Economic Studies 824, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
    11. Yongmin Chen & Keith Maskus, 2005. "Vertical Pricing and Parallel Imports," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 1-18.
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    Cited by:
    1. Birg, Laura, 2013. "Externalities of national pharmaceutical policy when markets are integrated through parallel trade," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 178, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.

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