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Increased Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Effects on consumption and emissions

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Author Info

  • Brännlund, Runar

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Umeå University)

  • Ghalwash, Tarek

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Umeå University)

  • Nordström, Jonas

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Umeå University)

Abstract

In this paper we examine how the Swedish consumers consumption basket have changed over time, and how this have affected emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). More specifically we examine how exogenous technological progress in terms of an increase in energy efficiency affects consumption and emissions. Due to the change in energy efficiency we calculate the necessary change in the CO2 tax to keep CO2 emissions at the initial level, and how this affects emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that an increased energy efficiency of 20 percent will increase the emissions of CO2 by approximately 5 percent. To reduce the CO2 emissions to the initial level, the CO2 tax has to be raised by 130 percent. This tax increase will reduce the emissions of sulphur dioxide below the initial level, but will leave the emissions of nitrogen oxides at a higher level than the initial one. Thus, if marginal damages from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are non-constant, additional policy instruments are needed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Umeå University, Department of Economics in its series Umeå Economic Studies with number 642.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Energy Economics, 2007, pages 1-17.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:umnees:0642

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Postal: Department of Economics, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
Phone: 090 - 786 61 42
Fax: 090 - 77 23 02
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Web page: http://www.econ.umu.se/
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Keywords: Household consumption; energy demand; emissions; taxation.;

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  1. A. Greening, Lorna & Greene, David L. & Difiglio, Carmen, 2000. "Energy efficiency and consumption -- the rebound effect -- a survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 389-401, June.
  2. Kristrom, Bengt & Lundgren, Tommy, 2005. "Swedish CO2-emissions 1900-2010: an exploratory note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1223-1230, June.
  3. Slesnick, Daniel T, 1992. "Aggregate Consumption and Saving in the Postwar United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 585-97, November.
  4. Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
  5. McCONNELL, KENNETH E., 1997. "Income and the demand for environmental quality," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 383-399, November.
  6. Stern , David I., 1998. "Progress on the environmental Kuznets curve?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 173-196, May.
  7. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1995. "Neoclassical Growth, the J Curve for Abatement, and the Inverted U Curve for Pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 162-168, September.
  8. Berkhout, Peter H. G. & Muskens, Jos C. & W. Velthuijsen, Jan, 2000. "Defining the rebound effect," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 425-432, June.
  9. James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
  10. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  11. Jorgenson, Dale W & Slesnick, Daniel T, 1987. "Aggregate Consumer Behavior and Household Equivalence Scales," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(2), pages 219-32, April.
  12. Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
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