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Credit Risk versus Capital Requirements under Basel II: Are SME Loans and Retail Credit Really Different?

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  • Jacobson, Tor

    ()
    (Research Department, Central Bank of Sweden)

  • Lindé, Jesper

    ()
    (Research Department, Central Bank of Sweden)

  • Roszbach, Kasper

    ()
    (Research Department, Central Bank of Sweden)

Abstract

The new Basel II regulation contains a number of new regulatory features. Most importantly, internal ratings will be given a central role in the evaluation of the riskiness of bank loans. Another novelty is that retail credit and loans to small and medium-sized enterprises will receive a special treatment in recognition of the fact that the riskiness of such exposure derives to a greater extent from idiosyncratic risk and much less from common factor risk. Much of the work done on the differences between the risk properties of retail, SME and corporate credit has been based on parameterized models of credit risk. In this paper we present new quantitative evidence on the implied credit loss distributions for two Swedish banks using a non-parametric Monte Carlo re-sampling method following Carey [1998]. Our results are based on a panel data set containing both loan and internal rating data from the banks’ complete business loan portfolios over the period 1997-2000. We compute the credit loss distributions that each rating system implies and compare the required economic capital implied by these loss distributions with the regulatory capital under Basel II. By exploiting the fact that a subset of all businesses in the sample is rated by both banks, we can generate loss distributions for SME, retail and corporate credit portfolios with a constant risk profile. Our findings suggest that a special treatment for retail credit and SME loans may not be justified. We also investigate if any alternative definition of SME’s and retail credit would warrant different risk weight functions for these types of exposure. Our results indicate that it may be difficult to find a simple risk weight function that can account for the differences in portfolio risk properties between banks and asset types.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden) in its series Working Paper Series with number 162.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: 01 Apr 2004
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, 2005, pages 43-75.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:rbnkwp:0162

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Postal: Sveriges Riksbank, SE-103 37 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: 08 - 787 00 00
Fax: 08-21 05 31
Email:
Web page: http://www.riksbank.com/
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Keywords: Internal ratings; Credit risk; Value-at-Risk; Banks; Basel II; Retail credit; SME; risk weights;

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References

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  1. Jacobson, Tor & Lindé, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2003. "Internal Ratings Systems, Implied Credit Risk and the Consistency of Banks’ Risk Classification Policies," Working Paper Series 155, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  2. Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2002. "Distance, Lending Relationships and Competition," Discussion Paper 2002-16, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
  4. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
  5. Carling, Kenneth & Jacobson, Tor & Linde, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2007. "Corporate credit risk modeling and the macroeconomy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 845-868, March.
  6. Paul S. Calem & Michael LaCour-Little, 2001. "Risk-based capital requirements for mortgage loans," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-60, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Altman, Edward I. & Saunders, Anthony, 2001. "An analysis and critique of the BIS proposal on capital adequacy and ratings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 25-46, January.
  8. Gordy, Michael B., 2000. "A comparative anatomy of credit risk models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 119-149, January.
  9. Carling, Kenneth & Rönnegård, Lars & Roszbach, Kasper, 2004. "Is Firm Interdependence within Industries Important for Portfolio Credit Risk?," Working Paper Series 168, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  10. Roberto Perli & William I. Nayda, 2003. "Economic and regulatory capital allocation for revolving retail exposures," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-39, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Dennis Glennon & Peter Nigro, 2005. "An Analysis of SBA Loan Defaults by Maturity Structure," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 77-111, October.
  12. Dietsch, Michel & Petey, Joel, 2002. "The credit risk in SME loans portfolios: Modeling issues, pricing, and capital requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 303-322, March.
  13. Mathias Schmit, 2004. "Credit risk in the leasing industry," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14323, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  14. Mark Carey, 1998. "Credit Risk in Private Debt Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1363-1387, 08.
  15. Dietsch, Michel & Petey, Joel, 2004. "Should SME exposures be treated as retail or corporate exposures? A comparative analysis of default probabilities and asset correlations in French and German SMEs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 773-788, April.
  16. Carey, Mark & Hrycay, Mark, 2001. "Parameterizing credit risk models with rating data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 197-270, January.
  17. Carling, Kenneth & Jacobson, Tor & Lindé, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2002. "Capital Charges under Basel II: Corporate Credit Risk Modelling and the Macro Economy," Working Paper Series 142, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  18. Mark Carey, 2000. "Dimensions of credit risk and their relationship to economic capital requirements," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  19. Hamerle, Alfred & Liebig, Thilo & Rösch, Daniel, 2003. "Credit Risk Factor Modeling and the Basel II IRB Approach," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2003,02, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  20. Mark Carey, 2000. "Dimensions of Credit Risk and Their Relationship to Economic Capital Requirements," NBER Working Papers 7629, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Estrella, Arturo, 2004. "The cyclical behavior of optimal bank capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1469-1498, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jürgen Antony & Torben Klarl & Alfred Maußner, 2012. "Firm heterogeneity, credit constraints, and endogenous growth," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 105(3), pages 199-224, April.
  2. World Bank, 2010. "Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12515, The World Bank.
  3. Simone Varotto, 2007. "Tests on the Accuracy of Basel II," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2007-09, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  4. Antão, Paula & Lacerda, Ana, 2011. "Capital requirements under the credit risk-based framework," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1380-1390, June.
  5. Francesco Dainelli & Francesco Giunta & Fabrizio Cipollini, 2013. "Determinants of SME credit worthiness under Basel rules: the value of credit history information," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 66(264), pages 21-47.
  6. Rodriguez, Analía, 2007. "Distribución de pérdidas de la cartera de créditos: el método unifactorial de Basilea II vs. estimaciones no paramétricas," MPRA Paper 12637, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Jacobson, Tor & Lindé, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2003. "Internal Ratings Systems, Implied Credit Risk and the Consistency of Banks’ Risk Classification Policies," Working Paper Series 155, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  8. Edward Altman & Gabriele Sabato, 2005. "Effects of the New Basel Capital Accord on Bank Capital Requirements for SMEs," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 15-42, October.
  9. Jarko Fidrmuc & Christa Hainz & Anton Malesich, 2006. "Default Rates in the Loan Market for SMEs: Evidence from Slovakia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp854, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  10. Evžen Kocenda & Martin Vojtek, 2009. "Default Predictors and Credit Scoring Models for Retail Banking," CESifo Working Paper Series 2862, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Stijn Claessens & Jan Krahnen & William Lang, 2005. "The Basel II Reform and Retail Credit Markets," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 5-13, October.
  12. Jesús Saurina & Carlos Trucharte, 2007. "An assessment of Basel II procyclicality in mortgage portfolios," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0712, Banco de Espa�a.
  13. Tsai, Ming-Shann & Chen, Lien-Chuan, 2011. "The calculation of capital requirement using Extreme Value Theory," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 390-395, January.
  14. Simone Varotto, 2008. "An Assessment of the Internal Rating Based Approach in Basel II," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2008-04, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  15. Rodríguez Dupuy, Analía, 2007. "Loan portfolio loss distribution: Basel II unifactorial approach vs. Non parametric estimations," MPRA Paper 10697, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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