Congestion Charges in Stockholm: How Have They Affected Retail Revenues?
AbstractDid the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls - 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the tool area - and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analyzed using an intervention-control approach. Favorable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide, and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The Ratio Institute in its series Ratio Working Papers with number 134.
Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: 07 May 2009
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: The Ratio Institute, P.O. Box 5095, SE-102 42 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: 08-441 59 00
Fax: 08-441 59 29
Web page: http://www.ratio.se/
More information through EDIRC
Road toll; congestion fee; congestion charge; retail revenues; retail profts;
Other versions of this item:
- Daunfeldt , Sven-Olov & Rudholm , Niklas & Rämme, Ulf, 2009. "Congestion Charges in Stockholm: How Have They Affected Retail Revenues?," HUI Working Papers 23, HUI Research.
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
- H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household
- L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-05-23 (All new papers)
- NEP-MKT-2009-05-23 (Marketing)
- NEP-URE-2009-05-23 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Quddus, Mohammed A. & Bell, Michael G.H. & Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk & Fonzone, Achille, 2007. "The impact of the congestion charge on the retail business in London: An econometric analysis," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 433-444, September.
- Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas & Rämme, Ulf, 2009. "Congestion charges and retail revenues: Results from the Stockholm road pricing trial," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 306-309, March.
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