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What Motivates Farm Couples to Seek Off-farm Labour? A Logit Analysis of Job Transitions

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Author Info

  • Biørn, Erik

    ()
    (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo)

  • Bjørnsen, Hild-Marte

    ()
    (Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute)

Abstract

In this paper some labour market consequences of transitions in the agriculture sector are examined by combining a 20-year unbalanced panel data set from Norwegian farm couples (households) and logit modeling of one-period transition probabilities. The multi-dimensionality of the problem follows from two decision makers (partners) having four possible choices in each period: the farm operator and spouse can be working fully on the farm or having supplementary outside occupation. Transition probabilities are modeled by five alternative logit models. State dependence is represented to different extent. The most flexible model has a high number of parameters. Overall, the results indicate that transitions have mainly bee directed towards the state where both partners work off the farm. An increasing livestock reduces the probability of moving to states with substantial off-farm labour participation. Increased farm size tends to have the opposite effect. Recent on-farm investments come out with ambiguous effects, and the pattern seems to change during the observation period. Having children seems to motivate operators to withdraw from off-farm labour and spouses to stay in or entering off-farm employment.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Oslo University, Department of Economics in its series Memorandum with number 09/2013.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: 04 Apr 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:osloec:2013_009

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Department of Economics, University of Oslo, P.O Box 1095 Blindern, N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Phone: 22 85 51 27
Fax: 22 85 50 35
Email:
Web page: http://www.oekonomi.uio.no/indexe.html
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Related research

Keywords: Labour market transitions; Agriculture; Panel data; Markov chain; Logit analysis; State dependence; Multiple job-holding;

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References

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  1. Martin Browning & Jesus M. Carro, 2010. "Heterogeneity in dynamic discrete choice models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 13(1), pages 1-39, 02.
  2. Carro, Jesus M., 2007. "Estimating dynamic panel data discrete choice models with fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 503-528, October.
  3. A Corsi & JL Findeis, 2000. "True state dependence and heterogeneity in off-farm labour participation," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 127-151, June.
  4. Michael P. Keane & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 2009. "Empirical Applications of Discrete Choice Dynamic Programming Models," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, January.
  5. Avner Ahituv & Ayal Kimhi, 2006. "Simultaneous estimation of work choices and the level of farm activity using panel data," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 49-71, March.
  6. Bartolucci, Francesco & Farcomeni, Alessio, 2009. "A Multivariate Extension of the Dynamic Logit Model for Longitudinal Data Based on a Latent Markov Heterogeneity Structure," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 104(486), pages 816-831.
  7. Ahituv, Avner & Kimhi, Ayal, 2002. "Off-farm work and capital accumulation decisions of farmers over the life-cycle: the role of heterogeneity and state dependence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 329-353, August.
  8. Bo E. Honoré & Ekaterini Kyriazidou, 2000. "Panel Data Discrete Choice Models with Lagged Dependent Variables," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(4), pages 839-874, July.
  9. Dean R. Hyslop, 1999. "State Dependence, Serial Correlation and Heterogeneity in Intertemporal Labor Force Participation of Married Women," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(6), pages 1255-1294, November.
  10. Ayal Kimhi & Eliel Rapaport, 2004. "Time Allocation between Farm and Off-Farm Activities in Israeli Farm Households," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(3), pages 716-721.
  11. E. Phimister & D. Roberts, 2006. "The Effect of Off-farm Work on the Intensity of Agricultural Production," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(4), pages 493-515, August.
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