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Using Bank Mergers and Acquisitions to Understand Lending Relationships

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  • Hetland, Ove Rein

    ()
    (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)

  • Mjøs, Aksel

    ()
    (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)

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    Abstract

    We study how firm-bank lending relationships affect firms' access to and terms of credit. We use bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as exogenous events that affect lending relationships. Bank M&As lead to organisational changes at the involved banks, which may reduce the amount of soft information encompassed in the firm-bank relationship. Using a unique Norwegian dataset, which combines information on companies' bank accounts, annual accounts, bankruptcies, and bank M&As for the years 1997-2009, we find that domestic bank mergers increase interest rate margins by 0.24 percentage points for opaque small and medium sized rms, relative to less opaque firms. Since, due to information asymmetries, opaque firms are typically more dependent on bank lending relationships, our results indicate that these relationships are advantageous for such borrowers, and the destruction of a relationship during the merger process has adverse effects for the firm. Conversely, the results are not consistent with a lock-in effect due to an information monopoly by the relationship lender that on average increases a firm's borrowing costs over its life cycle. The results are robust to the inclusion of variables that control for e ects of market competition.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 2011/13.

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    Length: 41 pages
    Date of creation: 31 Aug 2011
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:nhhfms:2011_013

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    Postal: NHH, Department of Business and Management Science, Helleveien 30, N-5045 Bergen, Norway
    Phone: +47 55 95 92 93
    Fax: +47 55 95 96 50
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    Web page: http://www.nhh.no/en/research-faculty/department-of-business-and-management-science.aspx
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    Keywords: Bank Mergers and Acquisitions; Lending Relationships;

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    References

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    1. Bernanke, Ben S, 1983. "Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in Propagation of the Great Depression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 257-76, June.
    2. Udell, Gregory F., 2008. "What's in a relationship The case of commercial lending," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 93-103.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1997. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Proceedings 549, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    4. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, 02.
    5. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan, 1997. "Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1592, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
    7. Moshe Kim & Eirik Gaard Kristiansen & Bent Vale, 2007. "Life-cycle patterns of interest rate markups in small firm finance," Working Paper 2007/04, Norges Bank.
    8. Emilia Bonaccorsi Di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2007. "Winners or Losers? The Effects of Banking Consolidation on Corporate Borrowers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 669-695, 04.
    9. Xavier Freixas, 2005. "Deconstructing relationship banking," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 29(1), pages 3-31, January.
    10. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    11. Fabio Panetta & Fabiano Schivardi & Matthew Shum, 2009. "Do Mergers Improve Information? Evidence from the Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 673-709, 06.
    12. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    13. Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory F. Udell & Nobuyoshi Yamori, 2006. "Loan Officers and Relationship Lending," Discussion papers 06031, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
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