Swedish Business R&D and its Export Dependence
AbstractSweden has seen a rise in business R&D-intensities and dependence on exports to make its economy grow since the early 1990s. This paper examines the role of foreign sales in stimulating R&D as compared to a domestic sales effect, and finds, in line with the literature, that R&D rises proportionally to sales in cross-sections from 1991 to 2001. Among manufacturing firms, foreign sales are distinctly more associated with an increase in R&D than domestic sales. For service firms, domestic sales are as important as foreign. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that manufacturing firms more easily separate production from R&D, economize on transport costs and are subject to learning-by-exporting effects. In general, the results highlight the dependence on openness in stimulating R&D in a small economy, especially among manufacturing firms.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Lund University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2011:26.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 20 Sep 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: Forthcoming as Ejermo, Olof and Karin Bergman, 'Services vs. Manufacturing – How Does Foreign and Domestic Sales Impact on Their R&D?' in Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 2013.
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Department of Economics, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Box 7082, S-220 07 Lund,Sweden
Phone: +46 +46 222 0000
Fax: +46 +46 2224613
Web page: http://www.nek.lu.se/en
More information through EDIRC
R&D; size; exports; Sweden;
Other versions of this item:
- D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
- L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
- O32 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-10-01 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2011-10-01 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-INO-2011-10-01 (Innovation)
- NEP-INT-2011-10-01 (International Trade)
- NEP-SBM-2011-10-01 (Small Business Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Koenker,Roger, 2005.
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521608275, April.
- Breschi, Stefano & Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2000. "Technological Regimes and Schumpeterian Patterns of Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(463), pages 388-410, April.
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996.
"Is "Learning-by-Exporting" Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco,"
NBER Working Papers
5715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sofronis K. Clerides & Saul Lach & James R. Tybout, 1998. "Is Learning By Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence From Colombia, Mexico, And Morocco," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(3), pages 903-947, August.
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996. "Is "learning-by-exporting" important? Micro-dynamic evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- William Gould, 1993. "Quantile regression with bootstrapped standard errors," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(9).
- Santarelli, Enrico & Piergiovanni, Roberta, 1996.
"Analyzing literature-based innovation output indicators: the Italian experience,"
Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 689-711, August.
- Enrico Santarelli, 1994. "Analysing Literature-Based Innovation Output Indicators: The Italian Experience," Working Papers 197, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2000.
"Where Schumpeter was nearly Right - the Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy,"
Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
370, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Ulf Jakobsson & Magnus Henrekson, 2001. "Where Schumpeter was nearly right - the Swedish model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 331-358.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2000. "Where Schumpeter was Nearly Right - The Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," Working Paper Series 533, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Nick Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2005.
"Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 701-728, May.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Howitt, Peter & Griffith, Rachel & Aghion, Philippe & Blundell, Richard & Bloom, Nick, 2005. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship," Scholarly Articles 4481507, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship," NBER Working Papers 9269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alla Lileeva & Daniel Trefler, 2007.
"Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Plant-Level Productivity ... for Some Plants,"
NBER Working Papers
13297, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alla Lileeva & Daniel Trefler, 2010. "Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Plant-Level Productivity... for Some Plants," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 125(3), pages 1051-1099, August.
- Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2005.
"Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 373-391, December.
- Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2003. "Exporting Raises Productivity in Sub-Saharan African Manufacturing Plants," NBER Working Papers 10020, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik & Karpaty, Patrik, 2008.
"Service-sector competition, innovation and R&D,"
Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
702, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Fors, Gunnar & Svensson, Roger, 2002. "R&D and foreign sales in Swedish multinationals: a simultaneous relationship?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 95-107, January.
- Alfred Kleinknecht & Kees Van Montfort & Erik Brouwer, 2002. "The Non-Trivial Choice between Innovation Indicators," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 109-121.
- Martin Andersson & Hans Lˆˆf, 2009.
"Learning-by-Exporting Revisited: The Role of Intensity and Persistence,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 111(4), pages 893-916, December.
- Andersson, Martin & Lööf, Hans, 2008. "Learning-by-Exporting Revisited - the role of intensity and persistence," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 149, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Jan De Loecker, 2004.
"Do Exports Generate Higher Productivity? Evidence from Slovenia,"
LICOS Discussion Papers
15104, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
- Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
- Mary Hallward-Driemeier & Giuseppe Iarossi & Kenneth L. Sokoloff, 2002. "Exports and Manufacturing Productivity in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis with Firm-Level Data," NBER Working Papers 8894, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1998.
"Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms,"
Working Paper Series
497, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1999. " Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 11-23, February.
- Olof Ejermo & Astrid Kander, 2011. "Swedish business research productivity," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(4), pages 1081-1118, August.
- Martin Andersson & Olof Ejermo, 2008. "Technology Specialization And The Magnitude And Quality Of Exports," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 355-375.
- Wallmark, J. Torkel & McQueen, Douglas H., 1991. "One hundred major Swedish technical innovations, from 1945 to 1980," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 325-344, August.
- Ejermo, Olof & Kander, Astrid & Svensson Henning, Martin, 2011. "The R&D-growth paradox arises in fast-growing sectors," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 664-672, June.
- Steven Klepper & Franco Malerba, 2010. "Demand, innovation and industrial dynamics: an introduction," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(5), pages 1515-1520, October.
- Robert Vossen, 1999. "Market Power, Industrial Concentration and Innovative Activity," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 367-378, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Edgerton).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.