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Trade Liberalization and the Geography of Production: Agglomeration, Concentration and Dispersal in Indonesia’s Manufacturing Industry


Author Info

  • Sjöberg, Örjan

    (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

  • Sjöholm, Fredrik

    (EIJS at the Stockholm School of Economics)


The effect of trade liberalization on the spatial concentration of economic activities is not straightforward. It has, on the one hand been widely argued that protectionism increase spatial concentration when firms locate close to the main domestic markets, but it has also been argued that trade expansion primarily favour existing industrial centres and therefore lead to increased regional inequalities. We examine the spatial concentration of manufacturing in Indonesia between 1980 and 1996, a period when Indonesia substantially liberalized its trade regime. The high concentration has not decreased and establishments engaged in international trade are actually comparably concentrated. We discuss some possible explanations to the spatial concentration in Indonesia and conclude that a host of factors including the spatial configuration affects the outcome of trade liberalizations.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Stockholm School of Economics in its series Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance with number 488.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: 15 Jan 2002
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Economic Geography, 2004, pages 287-310.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0488

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Keywords: trade policy; geography; agglomeration; manufacturing; Indonesia;

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Cited by:
  1. Sun, Churen & Yu, Zhihao & Zhang, Tao, 2012. "Agglomeration and Trade with Heterogeneous Firms," MPRA Paper 49001, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Aug 2013.


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