Mandatory Earnings-Related Insurance Rights, Human Capital and the Gender Earnings Gap in Sweden
AbstractMost labour market analyses take money wages as the sole measure of compensation for labour, thus excluding fringe benefits. We examine an extended compensation measure by incorporating mandatory collective earnings-related insurance rights: the rights of individual old age pension, sickness benefit insurance and survivors’ pension. We estimate the return on investment in human capital and the gender earnings gap in a traditional earnings equation. The money wage and the extended wage are used as dependent variables in joint regressions, where a SUR framework enables proper joint cross-equation tests. The main finding is that the inclusion of earnings-related insurance rights does affect the return on education. When these non-wage benefits are included, the gender wage gap decreases by 21 per cent. However, the gender differences in returns to education are severely underestimated when money wage is used as a compensation measure.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Trade Union Institute for Economic Research in its series Working Paper Series with number 179.
Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: 07 Oct 2002
Date of revision:
Non-wage benefits; Gender gap; Human capital; Occupational welfare;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
- J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Private Pensions
- J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
- M52 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Personnel Economics - - - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
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