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THE CREATIVE CLASS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - civil society, regional development and high-tech employment in Japan

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Author Info

  • Westlund, Hans

    (KTH and JIBS)

  • Calidoni-Lundberg, Federica

    (Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies)

Abstract

Do the social and cultural environments have any impact on regional development, expressed in terms of e.g. entrepreneurship, innovations and growth of new industries? A rapidly increasing field of research has found many indications on that such an impact of the civil society exists. In the literature, two partly contradicting hypotheses can be discerned: 1. Florida’s hypothesis, saying that a heterogeneous civil society with diverse values combined with tolerance is influencing regional growth in a positive way, and 2. Putnam’s hypothesis, saying that a homogenous civil society with common norms and values and trust between its citizens is having a positive impact on regional development.This paper studies the validity of these two hypotheses on the current regional development in Japan,measured in four alternative ways: population growth, the high-tech sector’s and high-tech services’ regional distribution, and the net growth of enterprises. As determining variables, we use data from the Japanese General Social Surveys’ International Comparative Survey on Values and Behavioral Patterns, Non-Profit Organizations per capita and share of the population being born abroad, plus control variables in the form of market accessibility and human capital. On detailed regional level (46 prefectures) the analysis does not give any significant support to any of the civil society hypotheses. However, on large-region level (8 regions) the civil society measure gives a significant result for high-tech industry and services.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies in its series Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation with number 112.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 11 Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:cesisp:0112

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Keywords: Regional development; Social capital; Creative class; Civil society; Japan; High-tech industry;

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References

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  1. Westlund, Hans & Bolton, Roger, 2003. " Local Social Capital and Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 77-113, September.
  2. Ottaviano, Gianmarco Ireo Paolo & Peri, Giovanni, 2004. "The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity: Evidence from US Cities," CEPR Discussion Papers 4233, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Roland Andersson & John M. Quigley & Mats Wilhelmsson, 2005. "Agglomeration and the spatial distribution of creativity," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(3), pages 445-464, 08.
  4. Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs & Sam Youl Lee, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-17, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  6. Niebuhr, Annekatrin, 2006. "Migration and innovation: Does cultural diversity matter for regional R&D activity?," HWWI Research Papers 3-1, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
  7. Hans Westlund & Elin Nilsson, 2003. "Measuring enterprises’ investments in social capital - a pilot study," ERSA conference papers ersa03p235, European Regional Science Association.
  8. Paul Krugman, 1990. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," NBER Working Papers 3275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Marta Portela & Isabel Neira, 2011. "Social Capital and growth in the European Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1160, European Regional Science Association.

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