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The adverse selection problem in imperfectly competitive credit markets

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  • Mälkönen , Ville

    ()
    (VATT (Government Institute for Economic Research))

  • Vesala , Timo

    ()
    (Bank of Finland Research)

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    Abstract

    We study the adverse selection problem in imperfectly competitive credit markets and illustrate the circumstances where a separating equilibrium emerges, even without collateral. The borrowers are heterogeneous in their preferences concerning the banks. Separation obtains in market segments where the ‘high risk’ borrowers receive credit from their preferred bank. The ‘low risk’ borrowers choose the ex-ante less-preferred bank that offers loan contracts with lower interest rates. The availability of credit will be maximized under an intermediate level of competition, a prediction that is supported by recent empirical evidence.

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    File URL: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/julkaisut/tutkimukset/keskustelualoitteet/Documents/0626netti.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Bank of Finland in its series Research Discussion Papers with number 26/2006.

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    Length: 27 pages
    Date of creation: 14 Dec 2006
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:bofrdp:2006_026

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    Postal: Bank of Finland, P.O. Box 160, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
    Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/
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    Keywords: asymmetric information; credit rationing; bank differentiation;

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    1. Caminal, Ramon & Matutes, Carmen, 2002. "Market power and banking failures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1341-1361, November.
    2. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-89, October.
    3. Bester, Helmut, 1987. "The role of collateral in credit markets with imperfect information," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 887-899, June.
    4. Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 1999. "Customer Poaching and Brand Switching," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1871, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Broecker, Thorsten, 1990. "Credit-Worthiness Tests and Interbank Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 429-52, March.
    6. Thakor, Anjan V., 2000. "Relationship Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-5, January.
    7. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia, 2001. "Bank Competition and Firm Creation," IMF Working Papers 01/21, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Jan Bouckaert & Hans Degryse, 2004. "Softening Competition by Inducing Switching in Credit Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 27-52, 03.
    9. Kim, Moshe & Kliger, Doron & Vale, Bent, 2003. "Estimating switching costs: the case of banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 25-56, January.
    10. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
    11. Jaffee, Dwight M & Russell, Thomas, 1976. "Imperfect Information, Uncertainty, and Credit Rationing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 651-66, November.
    12. Leonard I. Nakamura, 1993. "Loan screening within and outside of customer relationships," Working Papers 93-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    13. Yongmin Chen, 1997. "Paying Customers to Switch," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(4), pages 877-897, December.
    14. Gerhard Clemenz & Mona Ritthaler, 1992. "Credit markets with asymmetric information : a survey," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 12-26, Spring.
    15. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    16. Elsas, Ralf, 2005. "Empirical determinants of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 32-57, January.
    17. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
    18. de Meza, David & Webb, David C, 1987. "Too Much Investment: A Problem of Asymmetric Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 281-92, May.
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