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Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Influences on Entry and Exit of Firms

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Author Info

  • Ilmakunnas, Pekka

    ()
    (Bank of Finland Research, Aalto University School of Economics)

  • Topi, Jukka

    ()
    (Bank of Finland Research)

Abstract

We examine the entry and exit process in the Finnish manufacturing industry. Microeconomic explanations of entry and exit are derived from industrial organization theory and macroeconomic explanations from the theory of monetary transmission mechanism. Since the variables to be explained, the number of entering and exiting firms, are non-negative integers, we use Poisson and negative binomial models in the estimation. The data is a six year panel of three-digit industries. The results show that scale economies form a significant entry barrier, but the evidence on their role as an exit barrier is weaker. Concentration has a negative impact on entry, but this result is not robust to the choice of estimation method. Industry growth has a positive influence on entry and a negative influence on exit, but also variables describing the general economic climate have an influence on the entry-exit process. The variables describing the monetary transmission mechanism have an expected influence on entry. Credit supply has a positive and real interest rate a negative effect on entry. However, the role of the macroeconomic influences on exit is inconclusive. Past entry has a significant effect on exit, which reflects the displacement of old firms by new ones and the short life expectancy of new firms. Both entry and exit have almost unit elasticity with respect to industry size, measured by the number of firms in the previous period. Entry and exit rates are therefore practically independent of industry size.

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File URL: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/julkaisut/tutkimukset/keskustelualoitteet/Documents/DP_06_1996.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Finland in its series Research Discussion Papers with number 6/1996.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 04 Mar 1996
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:bofrdp:1996_006

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Postal: Bank of Finland, P.O. Box 160, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/en/
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Keywords: entry; exit; monetary transmission mechanism;

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  1. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
  2. Johnson, Peter & Parker, Simon, 1994. " The Interrelationships between Births and Deaths," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 283-90, August.
  3. L. Wade, 1988. "Review," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 99-100, July.
  4. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  5. Anil Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 1993. "Monetary Policy and Bank Lending," NBER Working Papers 4317, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1994. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles, and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(2), pages 309-40, May.
  7. Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1998. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521633574, October.
    • Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1995. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521465618, October.
  8. Fotopoulos, Georgios & Spence, Nigel, 1997. " Net Entry of Firms into Greek Manufacturing: The Effects of Business Conditions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 239-53, June.
  9. Shapiro, Daniel & Khemani, R. S., 1987. "The determinants of entry and exit reconsidered," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 15-26, March.
  10. Cameron, A Colin & Trivedi, Pravin K, 1986. "Econometric Models Based on Count Data: Comparisons and Applications of Some Estimators and Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 29-53, January.
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