Conditionality in Chinese bilateral lending
AbstractChina’s long insistence on non-interference and sovereignty and frequent criticism of Western interventionism has contributed to a widely held impression that China lends and invests abroad without attaching policy conditions. This discussion paper surveys the general policy debate on conditionality in lending, as well as China’s own debate on conditionality. We then examine bilateral loans provided by Chinese state-owned policy banks, notably China Exim Bank, arguing that the assumption of China’s shunning conditionality is valid only if the term is taken narrowly to imply the specific set of policy conditions (e.g. privatisation and financial liberalisation) routinely called for by World Bank Group lenders. Based on a literature review and analysis of loan features along with tentative evidence from empirical cases of Chinese bilateral lending, we identify four hypothetical types of conditionality: political conditionality, embedded conditionality, cross-conditionality and emergent conditionality. In all likelihood the last three types of conditionality are not imposed by a unitary state actor, but emerge as an indirect consequence of the voluminous business activities of Chinese state-linked lenders and enterprises in developing countries.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition in its series BOFIT Discussion Papers with number 14/2011.
Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 21 Jun 2011
Date of revision:
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More information through EDIRC
China; bilateral lending; conditionality; policy banks;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
- F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
- F59 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - Other
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- C. Randall Henning, 2002.
"East Asian Financial Cooperation,"
Peterson Institute Press: Policy Analyses in International Economics,
Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa68, November.
- Bacha, Edmar L., 1987. "IMF conditionality: Conceptual problems and policy alternatives," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 15(12), pages 1457-1467, December.
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