Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Does diversification increase or decrease bank risk and performance? Evidence on diversification and the risk-return tradeoff in banking

Contents:

Author Info

  • Berger, Allen N.

    ()
    (BOFIT)

  • Hasan, Iftekhar

    (BOFIT)

  • Korhonen, Iikka

    ()
    (BOFIT)

  • Zhou, Mingming

    (BOFIT)

Abstract

Conventional wisdom in banking argues that diversification tends to reduce bank risk and improve performance, but the recent financial crisis suggests that aggressive diversification strategies may have resulted in increased risk taking and poor performance. This paper addresses this important question by evaluating the empirical relationship between diversification strategies and the risk-return tradeoff in banking. Our data set covers Russian banks during the 1999-2006 period and finds somewhat mixed results. Specifically, we find that banks’ performance tends to be non-monotonically related to their diversification strategy. The marginal effects of focus indices (inverse measures of diversification) on performance are nonlinearly associated with the level of risk and foreign ownership. A focused strategy is found to be associated with increased profit and decreased risk only up to a certain threshold. Additionally, when foreign ownership is either very high or very low, banks tend to benefit more from being diversified. This analysis provides important strategic and policy implications for bank managers and regulators in Russia as well as in other emerging economies.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/bofit_en/tutkimus/tutkimusjulkaisut/dp/Documents/DP0910.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition in its series BOFIT Discussion Papers with number 9/2010.

as in new window
Length: 56 pages
Date of creation: 21 Jun 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:bofitp:2010_009

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Bank of Finland, BOFIT, P.O. Box 160, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Phone: + 358 10 831 2268
Fax: + 358 10 831 2294
Email:
Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/bofit_en/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: banks; diversification; focus; Russia; foreign ownership; scope economies;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1890, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  2. Kevin J. Stiroh, 2002. "Diversification in banking: is noninterest income the answer?," Staff Reports 154, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  3. Vernikov , Andrei V., 2007. "Russia's banking sector transition: Where to?," BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2007, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  4. Ramakrishnan, Ram T S & Thakor, Anjan V, 1984. "Information Reliability and a Theory of Financial Intermediation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 415-32, July.
  5. Peresetsky , Anatoly, 2008. "Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance in Russia," BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2008, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  6. Fauver, Larry & Houston, Joel F. & Naranjo, Andy, 2004. "Cross-country evidence on the value of corporate industrial and international diversification," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 729-752, November.
  7. Servaes, Henri, 1996. " The Value of Diversification during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1201-25, September.
  8. Sapienza, Paola, 2004. "The effects of government ownership on bank lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 357-384, May.
  9. Berger, Allen N. & Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & Klapper, Leora & Udell, Gregory F., 2005. "Corporate governance and bank performance : a joint analysis of the static, selection, and dynamic effects of domestic, foreign, and state ownership," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3632, The World Bank.
  10. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2006. "Bank supervision and corruption in lending," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(8), pages 2131-2163, November.
  11. Gilbert, R Alton, 1984. "Bank Market Structure and Competition: A Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 617-44, November.
  12. Claeys, Sophie & Schoors, Koen, 2007. "Bank supervision Russian style: Evidence of conflicts between micro- and macroprudential concerns," Working Paper Series 205, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  13. Berger, Allen N. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Zhou, Mingming, 2009. "The effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: Evidence from Chinese banks," CEI Working Paper Series 2009-09, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  14. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. " Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-87, September.
  15. Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar, 2005. "Does Legal Enforcement Affect Financial Transactions? The Contractual Channel in Private Equity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(1), pages 223-246, January.
  16. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1988. "The profitability and risk effects of allowing bank holding companies to merge with other financial firms: a simulation study," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-20.
  17. Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2005. "Is There a Diversification Discount in Financial Conglomerates?," NBER Working Papers 11499, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Fries, Steven & Taci, Anita, 2005. "Cost efficiency of banks in transition: Evidence from 289 banks in 15 post-communist countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 55-81, January.
  19. Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders & Viral V. Acharya, 2002. "Should banks be diversified? Evidence from individual bank loan portfolios," BIS Working Papers 118, Bank for International Settlements.
  20. Bonin, John P. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wachtel, Paul, 2005. "Bank performance, efficiency and ownership in transition countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 31-53, January.
  21. John H. Boyd & Edward C. Prescott, 1985. "Financial intermediary-coalitions," Staff Report 87, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  22. Denis, David J & Denis, Diane K & Sarin, Atulya, 1997. " Agency Problems, Equity Ownership, and Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 135-60, March.
  23. Mester, Loretta J., 1993. "Efficiency in the savings and loan industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 267-286, April.
  24. Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
  25. Alexei Karas & Koen Schoors & Laurent Weill, 2008. "Are private banks more efficient than public banks ? Evidence from Russia," Working Papers of LaRGE Research Center 2008-15, Laboratoire de Recherche en Gestion et Economie (LaRGE), Université de Strasbourg.
  26. DeLisle Worrell & Andrea M. Maechler & Srobona Mitra, 2007. "Decomposing Financial Risks and Vulnerabilities in Eastern Europe," IMF Working Papers 07/248, International Monetary Fund.
  27. Berger, Philip G. & Ofek, Eli, 1995. "Diversification's effect on firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 39-65, January.
  28. Owen A. Lamont & Christopher Polk, . "Does Diversification Destroy Value? Evidence from Industry Shocks."," CRSP working papers 521, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  29. Camara, Modibo K. & Montes-Negret, Fernando, 2006. "Deposit insurance and banking reform in Russia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4056, The World Bank.
  30. De Bandt, Olivier & Davis, E. Philip, 2000. "Competition, contestability and market structure in European banking sectors on the eve of EMU," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1045-1066, June.
  31. Rose, Peter S, 1989. "Diversification of the Banking Firm," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 24(2), pages 251-80, May.
  32. A. Karas & K. Schoors, 2005. "Heracles or Sisyphus? Finding, cleaning and reconstructing a database of Russian banks," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 05/327, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  33. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  34. James, Christopher, 1987. "Some evidence on the uniqueness of bank loans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 217-235, December.
  35. Allen N. Berger & J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss & Hongmin Zi, 1999. "Conglomeration versus strategic focus: evidence from the insurance industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-40, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  36. Paul Wachtel & Iftekhar Hasan & Mingming Zhou, 2007. "Institutional Development, Financial Deepening and Economic Growth: Evidence from China," Working Papers 07-17, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  37. Fungacova, Zuzana & Solanko, Laura, 2008. "Risk-taking by Russian banks: Do location, ownership and size matter?," BOFIT Discussion Papers 21/2008, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  38. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 107, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  39. S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  40. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B. & Pulley, Lawrence B., 1996. "Do consumers pay for one-stop banking? Evidence from an alternative revenue function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1601-1621, November.
  41. Perotti, Enrico C. & Gelfer, Stanislav, 2001. "Red barons or robber barons? Governance and investment in Russian financial-industrial groups," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 1601-1617, October.
  42. Jeffrey A. Clark & Thomas F. Siems, 1997. "Competitive viability in banking: looking beyond the balance sheet," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 97-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  43. Cerasi, Vittoria & Daltung, Sonja, 2000. "The optimal size of a bank: Costs and benefits of diversification," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(9), pages 1701-1726, October.
  44. Fama, Eugene F., 1980. "Banking in the theory of finance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 39-57, January.
  45. Pulley, Lawrence B & Humphrey, David B, 1993. "The Role of Fixed Costs and Cost Complementarities in Determining Scope Economies and the Cost of Narrow Banking Proposals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66(3), pages 437-62, July.
  46. Berger, Allen N. & Hanweck, Gerald A. & Humphrey, David B., 1987. "Competitive viability in banking : Scale, scope, and product mix economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 501-520, December.
  47. Berger, Allen N. & Hancock, Diana & Humphrey, David B., 1993. "Bank efficiency derived from the profit function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 317-347, April.
  48. Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2005. "Business Groups and Risk Sharing around the World," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(1), pages 301-340, January.
  49. Haselmann, Rainer & Pistor, Katharina & Vig, Vikrant, 2006. "How Law Affects Lending," MPRA Paper 157, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  50. Noulas, Athanasios G & Ray, Subhash C & Miller, Stephen M, 1990. "Returns to Scale and Input Substitution for Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 94-108, February.
  51. Styrin Konstantin, 2005. "What Explains Differences in Efficiency Across Russian Banks?," EERC Working Paper Series 01-258e-1, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
  52. Mester, Loretta J, 1987. " A Multiproduct Cost Study of Savings and Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 423-45, June.
  53. Ece Ungan & Selçuk Caner & Süheyla Özyıldırım, 2008. "Depositors’ Assessment of Bank Riskiness in the Russian Federation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 77-100, April.
  54. Peresetsky, A.A. & Karminsky, A.M. & Golovan, S.V., 2007. "Russian banks´ private deposit interest rates and market discipline," BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2007, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  55. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Schmeits, Anjolein, 2000. "Market Discipline and Incentive Problems in Conglomerate Firms with Applications to Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 240-273, July.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Sokolov, V., 2012. "The Impact of Central Bank Liquidity Infusions on Banks with High Level of Foreign Borrowing during the Crisis," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 51-78.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:bofitp:2010_009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Päivi Määttä).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.