How vertically specialized is Chinese trade?
AbstractTwo recent phenomena have transformed the nature of world trade: the explosive growth of Chinese trade, and the growth of vertically specialized trade due to international production fragmentation. While vertical specialization may explain much of the growth and unique features of Chinese trade, few papers have quantitatively assessed these two phenomena together. In part, this is because it is difficult to measure just how vertically specialized Chinese trade is. The unique features of China's extensive processing trade cause both the identification of imported intermediate goods, and their allocation across sectors, to depend upon the Chinese trade regime. In this paper, we estimate the vertical specialization of Chinese exports, addressing these two challenges. Using two Chinese benchmark input-output tables, and a detailed Chinese trade dataset which distinguishes processing trade from other forms of trade, we develop a new method of identifying intermediate goods imported into China. Vertical specialization is then estimated using two methods. The first method uses the Hummels, Ishii and Yi (2001) measure, the official benchmark IO tables, and incorporates our identification correction. The second method follows the first, but also incorporates the Koopman, Wang and Wei (2008) method of splitting the benchmark IO tables into separate tables for processing and normal exports, in order to address the allocation problem. Results show strong evidence of an Asian network of intermediate suppliers to China, and the two methods provide a range of estimates for the foreign content of Chinese exports. In 2002 aggregate exports ranges between 25% and 46%, with some individual sectors are as high as 52%-95%. Across destinations, under both methods, the vertical specialization of Chinese exports declines with the level of development of the trading partner.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition in its series BOFIT Discussion Papers with number 31/2008.
Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: 23 Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Bank of Finland, BOFIT, P.O. Box 160, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Phone: + 358 10 831 2268
Fax: + 358 10 831 2294
Web page: http://www.suomenpankki.fi/bofit_en/
More information through EDIRC
China; fragmentation; vertical specialization; trade growth;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
- F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-01-24 (All new papers)
- NEP-CNA-2009-01-24 (China)
- NEP-DEV-2009-01-24 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2009-01-24 (International Trade)
- NEP-SEA-2009-01-24 (South East Asia)
- NEP-TRA-2009-01-24 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Baldwin, Richard E., 2007.
"Managing the Noodle Bowl: The Fragility of East Asian Regionalism,"
Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration
7, Asian Development Bank.
- Richard E. Baldwin, 2008. "Managing The Noodle Bowl: The Fragility Of East Asian Regionalism," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 53(03), pages 449-478.
- Baldwin, Richard, 2006. "Managing the Noodle Bowl: The Fragility of East Asian Regionalism," CEPR Discussion Papers 5561, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Deardorff, A.V., 1998.
"Fragmentation Across Cones,"
427, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999.
"The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade,"
72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
- Peter K. Schott, 2008.
"The relative sophistication of Chinese exports,"
CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 23, pages 5-49, 01.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006.
"What's So Special about China's Exports?,"
China & World Economy,
Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 14(5), pages 1-19.
- Rodrik, Dani, 2006. "What's So Special about China's Exports?," Working Paper Series rwp06-001, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006. "What’s So Special about China’s Exports?," Working Papers id:410, eSocialSciences.
- Rodrik, Dani, 2006. "What's So Special About China's Exports?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5484, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006. "What's So Special about China's Exports?," NBER Working Papers 11947, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Amiti, Mary & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2005.
"Trade Costs and Location of Foreign Firms in China,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4978, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Amiti, Mary & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2008. "Trade costs and location of foreign firms in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 129-149, February.
- Amiti, Mary & Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska, 2005. "Trade costs and location of foreign firms in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3564, The World Bank.
- International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Trade Costs and Location of Foreign Firms in China," IMF Working Papers 05/55, International Monetary Fund.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2005.
"Ownership and Control in Outsourcing to China: Estimating the Property-Rights Theory of the Firm,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 729-761, May.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2004. "Ownership and Control in Outsourcing to China: Estimating the Property-Rights Theory of the Firm," NBER Working Papers 10198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Markusen, 2005.
"Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI,"
NBER Working Papers
11827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markusen, James R., 2005. "Modeling the Offshoring of White-Collar Services: From Comparative Advantage to the New Theories of Trade and FDI," CEPR Discussion Papers 5408, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Wang, Zhi, 2003. "WTO accession, the "Greater China" free-trade area, and economic integration across the Taiwan Strait," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 316-349.
- Barbara Spencer, 2005.
"International outsourcing and incomplete contracts,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1107-1135, November.
- Barbara J. Spencer, 2005. "International Outsourcing and Incomplete Contracts," NBER Working Papers 11418, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2006. "Multinational Production Networks and the New Geo-economic Division of Labour in the Pacific Rim," Departmental Working Papers 2006-09, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
- Dean, Judith M. & Lovely, Mary E. & Wang, Hua, 2004. "Foreign Direct Investment and Pollution Havens: Evaluating the Evidence from China," Working Papers 15854, United States International Trade Commission, Office of Economics.
- Athukorala, Prema-chandra & Yamashita, Nobuaki, 2006.
"Production fragmentation and trade integration: East Asia in a global context,"
The North American Journal of Economics and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 233-256, December.
- Prema-chandra Athukorala & Nobuaki Yamashita, 2005. "Production Fragmentation and Trade Integration: East Asia in a Global Context," Departmental Working Papers 2005-07, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
- Jones, Ronald & Kierzkowski, Henryk & Lurong, Chen, 2005. "What does evidence tell us about fragmentation and outsourcing?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 305-316.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Päivi Määttä).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.