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Resale Price Maintenance And Up-Front Payments: Achieving Horizontal Control Under Seller And Buyer Power

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  • Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Bergen)

  • Johansen, Bjørn Olav

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Bergen)

Abstract

We consider a setting where an upstream producer and a competitive fringe of producers of a substitute product may sell their products to two differentiated downstream retailers. We investigate two different contracting games; one with seller power and a second game with buyer power. In each game we characterize the minimum set of vertical restraints that make the vertically integrated profit sustainable as an equilibrium outcome, and we also characterize sufficient conditions for having interlocking relationships (i.e. no exclusion). In line with the recent literature, we focus on the performance of simple two-part tariffs, upfront payments and RPM as facilitating devices for reducing competition under both buyer and seller power. With seller power we show that minimum RPM, possibly coupled with a quantity roof, will allow the manufacturer to induce industry wide monopoly prices. With buyer power we show that monopoly prices may be induced if the retailers may use an upfront fee together with a two-part tariff and a minimum RPM.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Bergen, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 02/13.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 11 Apr 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:bergec:2013_002

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Postal: Institutt for økonomi, Universitetet i Bergen, Postboks 7802, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Phone: (+47)55589200
Fax: (+47)55589210
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Web page: http://www.uib.no/econ/en
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Keywords: resale price maintenance; seller power; buyer power; horsizontal control;

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References

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  1. Bruno Jullien & Patrick Rey, 2007. "Resale price maintenance and collusion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(4), pages 983-1001, December.
  2. Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1997. "Nonlinear Supply Contracts, Exclusive Dealing, and Equilibrium Market Foreclosure," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(4), pages 755-785, December.
  3. Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 2003. "A Primer on Foreclosure," IDEI Working Papers 203, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Nov 2005.
  4. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, . "Exclusive Dealing," Working Papers 96008, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  5. Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl & Johansen, Bjørn Olav, 2012. "Buyer power and exclusion in vertically related markets," Working Papers in Economics 01/12, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  6. Hamilton, Stephen F. & Innes, Robert, 2006. "Vertical Restraints and Horizontal Control," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21424, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  7. Miklos-Thal, Jeanine & Rey, Patrick & Vergé, Thibaud, 2008. "Buyer Power and Intraband Coordination," IDEI Working Papers 500, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  8. Roman Inderst & Greg Shaffer, 2010. "Market-share contracts as facilitating practices," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(4), pages 709-729.
  9. Patrick REY & Thibaud VERGE, 2009. "Resale Price Maintenance and Interlocking Relationships," Working Papers 2009-11, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  10. Ilya Segal & Michael D. Whinston, 2003. "Robust Predictions for Bilateral Contracting with Externalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(3), pages 757-791, 05.
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