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Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

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  • Brännlund, Runar

    ()
    (Umeå University)

  • Lundgren, Tommy

    ()
    (Umeå School of Business)

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    Abstract

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the “Porter hypothesis”. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the “Swedish case” reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Sustainable Investment Research Platform in its series Sustainable Investment and Corporate Governance Working Papers with number 2009/1.

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    Length: 50 pages
    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2009
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhb:sicgwp:2009_001

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    Keywords: Environmental policy; Costs; Porter hypothesis;

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

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    Cited by:
    1. Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov & Samakovlis, Eva & Zhou, Wenchao, 2013. "Carbon Prices and Incentives for Technological Development," CERE Working Papers 2013:4, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    2. Stefan Ambec & Mark A. Cohen & Stewart Elgie & Paul Lanoie, 2010. "The Porter Hypothesis at 20: Can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?," CIRANO Working Papers 2010s-29, CIRANO.
    3. Yang, Chih-Hai & Tseng, Yu-Hsuan & Chen, Chiang-Ping, 2012. "Environmental regulations, induced R&D, and productivity: Evidence from Taiwan's manufacturing industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 514-532.
    4. Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov, 2012. "Environmental Performance and Profits," CERE Working Papers 2012:8, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    5. Zylicz, Tomasz, 2010. "Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 3(4), pages 299-334, May.

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