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Liberté et société post-utilitariste

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  • Gilles Saint-Paul

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - Toulouse School of Economics)

Abstract

Les fondements utilitaristes d'un gouvernement limité sont instables, dans la mesure où ils supposent des individus rationnels et cohérents. L'hypothèse d'agent rationnel faite par les économistes a récemment été l'objet d'attaques soutenues. L'économie comportementale a suggéré que les individus sont en proie à des biais irrationnels et des incohérences. L'auteur explique comment ces développements ont mené à un post-utilitarisme, qui justifie des interventions paternalistes de l'Etat via des " impôts sur le vice ", des interdictions directes ou de nouvelles obligations. La responsabilité individuelle est sévèrement dépréciée, tout comme la confiance dans les marchés. Il conclut que les défenseurs de la liberté individuelle doivent s'éloigner du raisonnement utilitariste, réaffirmer les valeurs fondamentales d'autonomie et de responsabilité, et définir les limites strictes du champ d'intervention du gouvernement.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by HAL in its series PSE Working Papers with number halshs-00732424.

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Date of creation: Sep 2012
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Handle: RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-00732424

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Keywords: Economie comportementale ; Utilitarisme ; Gouvernement ; Paternalisme;

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  1. Kahneman, Daniel & Knetsch, Jack L & Thaler, Richard H, 1990. "Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1325-48, December.
  2. Laibson, David, 1997. "Golden Eggs and Hyperbolic Discounting," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(2), pages 443-77, May.
  3. Akerlof, George A & Dickens, William T, 1982. "The Economic Consequences of Cognitive Dissonance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 307-19, June.
  4. Eytan Sheshinski, 2000. "Bounded Rationality and Socially Optimal Limits on Choice in a Self-Selection Model," Discussion Paper Series dp330, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, revised Nov 2002.
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