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Collateral effects of a pension reform in France

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  • Hélène Blake

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)

  • Clémentine Garrouste

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)

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    Abstract

    How does the retirement age affect the physical and mental health of seniors? We identify this effect based on the 1993 reform of the French pension system, which was heterogeneously introduced among the population. With each cohort, the French government gradually increased the incentive to work using two tools: the contribution period required for entitlement to a full pension and the number of reference earning years taken to calculate pensions. We use a unique database on health and employment in France in 1999 and 2005, when the cohorts affected by the reform started to retire. A difference-in-differences approach, with the control group comprising public sector employees (not concerned by the 1993 reform), finds that the people more affected by the reform, and hence with a stronger incentive to work, were those posting less of an improvement and even a deterioration in their health between 1999 and 2005. Subsequently, taking the reform as a tool to filter out the potential influence of health on employment choices, we show that retirement improves physical and social health. The more physically impacted are the low-educated individuals.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series PSE Working Papers with number halshs-00703706.

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    Date of creation: Jun 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-00703706

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00703706
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    Related research

    Keywords: Retirement ; Health ; Pension Reform;

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    1. Didier Blanchet & Thierry Debrand, 2008. "The sooner, the better? Analyzing preferences for early retirement in European countries," Working Papers, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics DT13, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jul 2008.
    2. Didier Blanchet & Paul Dourgnon & Anne Laferrère & Thierry Debrand, 2007. "Santé, vieillissement et retraite en Europe," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 403(1), pages 3-18.
    3. Bonsang, Eric & Adam, Stéphane & Perelman, Sergio, 2012. "Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 490-501.
    4. Norma B. Coe & Gema Zamarro, 2008. "Retirement Effects on Health in Europe," Working Papers, RAND Corporation Publications Department 588, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
    5. Susann Rohwedder, 2009. "Mental Retirement," Working Papers, RAND Corporation Publications Department 711, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
    6. Coe, N.B. & Lindeboom, M., 2008. "Does Retirement Kill You? Evidence from Early Retirement Windows," Discussion Paper, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research 2008-93, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    7. de Grip, Andries & Lindeboom, Maarten & Montizaan, Raymond, 2009. "Shattered Dreams: The Effects of Changing the Pension System Late in the Game," IZA Discussion Papers 4034, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Pagan, Ricardo, 2011. "Ageing and disability: Job satisfaction differentials across Europe," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 206-215, January.
    9. John Bound & Timothy Waidmann, 2007. "Estimating the Health Effects of Retirements," Working Papers, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center wp168, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
    10. Adriaan Kalwij & Frederic Vermeulen, 2008. "Health and labour force participation of older people in Europe: What do objective health indicators add to the analysis?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 619-638.
    11. Sirven, Nicolas & Debrand, Thierry, 2008. "Social participation and healthy ageing: An international comparison using SHARE data," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 67(12), pages 2017-2026, December.
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