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La lutte contre la pauvreté à l'épreuve des essais cliniques. Réflexion sur l'approche expérimentale de l'économie du développement

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  • Judith Favereau

    ()
    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne)

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    Abstract

    Les évaluations randomisées développées par Esther Duflo au sein du J-PAL ont transformé la lutte contre la pauvreté, cherchant à en faire une lutte " rigoureuse " fondée sur des preuves " scientifiques ". Cette approche tire son originalité d'une volonté de se rapprocher de la méthodologie d'un essai clinique médical, afin d'aboutir à une démarche neutre et impartiale. Cet article questionne la méthodologie du J-PAL en la rapprochant de celle des essais cliniques médicaux. Pour cela, nous utiliserons l'analyse de Georges Canguilhem, afin de pointer les principaux enjeux épistémologiques de l'approche du J-PAL. Nous montrons ensuite que cette approche peine à produire des remèdes efficaces contre la pauvreté et qu'elle ne peut, de ce fait, offrir qu'un panorama des symptômes de la pauvreté.

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    Paper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number halshs-00974686.

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    Date of creation: Mar 2014
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00974686

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    Related research

    Keywords: Randomisation; essais cliniques médicaux; épistémologie économique; pauvreté; économie du développement;

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    1. Abhijit Banerjee & Pranab Bardhan & Kaushik Basu & Ravi Kanbur & Dilip Mookherjee, 2005. "New Directions in Development Economics: Theory or Empirics? A Symposium in Economic and Political Weekly," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series, Boston University - Department of Economics DP-153, Boston University - Department of Economics.
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