How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development : Cross-Country Evidence
AbstractThis paper assumes that gender inequality hinders economic and human development : a one standard deviation change in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) will increase long term income per capita by 9,1% and Human Development Index (HDI) by 4%. Gender inequality may be a explanation of economic development differences : 16% of the long term income difference between South Asia and East Asia & Pacific can be accounted for by the difference in gender inequality. Moreover, this paper provides evidence of a vicious circle between gender inequality and long term income. The multi-dimensional concept of gender inequality is measured by a composite index with endogenous weightings : the Gender Inequality Index (GII). To correct endogeneity and simultaneity problems, the two-stage and three-stage least square methods are used separately. In this way, the steady state per capita income and the human development levels are estimated for 109 developing countries.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number halshs-00609828.
Date of creation: Feb 2011
Date of revision:
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Growth; Gender inequality; development economics.;
Other versions of this item:
- Gaëlle Ferrant, 2011. "How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development: Cross-Country Evidence," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 11012, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O11 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-07-27 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2011-07-27 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-DEV-2011-07-27 (Development)
- NEP-HME-2011-07-27 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-SEA-2011-07-27 (South East Asia)
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