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Enjeux et dilemmes de l'économie cognitive

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  • Bernard Paulré

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    (MATISSE - Modélisation Appliquée, Trajectoires Institutionnelles et Stratégies Socio-Économiques - CNRS : UMR8595 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne)

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    Abstract

    Le thème de l'information et de la connaissance est relativement récent en économie. Nous retraçons historiquement son émergence et nous présentons les théorisations proposées initialement. Non pas par souci de rappeler les éléments d'une histoire d'ailleurs pas encore écrite, mais simplement pour rappeler les questionnements qui sont à l'origine des problématiques existantes. Nous abordons deux problèmes. D'une part celui de savoir en quoi pourrait consister un programme de recherche en « économie cognitive ». D'autre part nous posons la question de savoir sur la base de quel modèle épistémique les économistes peuvent aborder le thème de l'information et de la connaissance. Nous opposons, ce qui est banal dans le domaine de sciences cognitives, et qui l'est beaucoup moins en économie, le paradigme computationniste et le paradigme connexioniste. Grosso modo, le paradigme computationniste s'articule bien avec le courant orthodoxe ainsi qu'avec sa forme amoindrie qui est le paradigme néo-rationaliste Simonien. Simon est d'ailleurs l'un des pères fondateurs du computationnisme. Nous critiquons plus particulièrement les axiomes de la logique épistémique telle qu'elle se manifeste aujourd'hui en théorie des jeux et sur la base de laquelle B. Walliser entend fonder un programme derecherche en économie cognitive. Par contre, on peut s'interroger sur la façon dont pourrait se manifester le paradigme connexioniste en économie. Nous montrons dans ce papier que la théorie évolutionniste de la firmes selon Nelson et Winter constitue en fait, sans que les auteurs semblent en avoir conscience, une bonne illustration de l'approche connexioniste en économie.

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    Paper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number halshs-00135486.

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    Date of creation: 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00135486

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    Keywords: information ; connaissance ; économie cognitive ; computationnisme ; connexionisme ; Nelson ; Winter ; Simon ; économie de l'information ; économie de la connaissance;

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    1. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1976. "Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 630-49, November.
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    13. Alan P. Kirman, 1992. "Variety : the coexistence of techniques," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, Programme National Persée, vol. 59(1), pages 62-74.
    14. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
    15. Theodore W. Schultz, 1962. "Reflections on Investment in Man," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 1.
    16. Ross, Stephen A, 1973. "The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal's Problem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 63(2), pages 134-39, May.
    17. Paul R. Milgrom & John Roberts, 1984. "Price and Advertising Signals of Product Quality," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University 709, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    18. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297.
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