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Pro-Poor Growth and Gender Inequality

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  • Stephan Klasen

    ()
    (Universität Göttingen, Germany)

Abstract

This paper examines to what extent gender gaps in education, health, employment, productive assets and inputs can affect pro poor growth (in the sense of increasing monetary incomes of the poor). After discussing serious methodological problems with examining gender issues in the context of an income-based pro-poor growth framework, the paper considers theory and evidence on the impact of gender inequality on pro poor growth. While there is a considerable literature suggesting negative impacts of gender gaps on growth, there is much less information on the impact of gender gaps on inequality. The paper then examines the experiences of country cases and finds that gender inequality can have a significant effect on pro-poor growth, but that the importance and type of effects differ considerably between different regions. It also appears that the effects of gender gaps on pro-poor growth operate primarily via an impact on growth rather than an impact on distributional change.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research in its series Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers with number 151.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: 19 Oct 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:151

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Keywords: Gender; Pro-Poor Growth; Operationalising Pro-Poor Growth;

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References

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  1. Barro, Robert J, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-43, May.
  2. Stephan Klasen, 2005. "Population Growth, (Per Capita) Economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction in Uganda: Theory and Evidence," Departmental Discussion Papers 125, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  3. Michael Kremer & Daniel Chen, 2000. "Income-distribution Dynamics with Endogenous Fertility," NBER Working Papers 7530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," IZA Discussion Papers 1031, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Theo S Eicher & Cecilia Garcia Penalosa, . "Inequality and Growth," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 0083, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  6. Stephan Klasen, 2005. "Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 246, OECD Publishing.
  7. Stephan Klasen & Melanie Grosse & Rainer Thiele & Jann Lay & Julius Spatz & Manfred Wiebelt, 2004. "Operationalizing Pro-Poor Growth - Country Case Study: Bolivia," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 101, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  8. Smith, Lisa C. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 2000. "Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: a cross-country analysis," Research reports 111, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  9. Haddad, Lawrence & Kanbur, Ravi, 1990. "How Serious Is the Neglect of Intra-Household Inequality?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(402), pages 866-81, September.
  10. Galor, Oded & Weil, David, 1995. "The Gender Gap, Fertility and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Stephan Klasen & Francesca Lamanna, 2009. "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for a Panel of Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 91-132.
  12. Stephan Klasen, 2004. "In Search of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth?," Macroeconomics 0401005, EconWPA.
  13. Stephan Klasen & Claudia Wink, 2003. ""Missing Women": Revisiting The Debate," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2-3), pages 263-299.
  14. Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "Gender-Related Indicators of Well-Being," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  15. Kristin J. Forbes, 2000. "A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 869-887, September.
  16. Schultz, T. Paul, 1993. "Demand for children in low income countries," Handbook of Population and Family Economics, in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 349-430 Elsevier.
  17. Paula K. Lorgelly & P. Dorian Owen, 1999. "The effect of female and male schooling on economic growth in the Barro-Lee model," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 537-557.
  18. Seguino, Stephanie, 2000. "Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1211-1230, July.
  19. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1994. "Sources of economic growth," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-46, June.
  20. Klasen, Stephan & Wink, Claudia, 2001. "A Turning Point in Gender Bias in Mortality?," Discussion Papers in Economics 23, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  21. Berta Esteve-Volart, 2004. "Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 42, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  22. Lagerlof, Nils-Petter, 2003. " Gender Equality and Long-Run Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 403-26, December.
  23. Stephan Klasen & Claudia Wink, 2002. "A Turning Point in Gender Bias in Mortality? An Update on the Number of Missing Women," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 28(2), pages 285-312.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Foraita, Ronja & Klasen, Stephan & Pigeot, Iris, 2008. "Using graphical chain models to analyze differences in structural correlates of undernutrition in Benin and Bangladesh," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 398-419, December.
  2. Stephan Klasen, 2006. "Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement Issues using Income and Non-Income Indicators," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 142, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Margit Schratzenstaller, 2008. "Gender Budgeting in Austria," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 6(2), pages 44-51, 07.
  4. World Bank, 2012. "A Gender (R)evolution in the Making? Expanding Women's Economic Opportunities in Central America : A Decade in Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12468, The World Bank.

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