Dancing with the Dragon Heads: Enforcement, Innovations and Efficiency of Contracts between Agricultural Processors and Farmers in China
AbstractContractual breaches are very prevalent in developing countries, such as in China. In order to prevent breaches of contracts, the contractual designs between farmers and agricultural processors (Dragon-Heads Firms) in China, innovate in two ways: organizational innovations and contractual innovations. In particular, contractual innovations are that initial simple price-quantity contracts involve into complex cooperation contracts. Using the data for over 500 State Key Processors in 2003 from Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, we construct econometric models to study contract choices, contract intensity, and the impacts on sales and profits for agricultural processors in China. The results indicate that capital and the number of contracted farmers are endogenous in contract choices. Processors are more likely to use cooperation contracts compared with price-quantity contracts as the number of contracted farmers increases, because then the costs of coordinating, monitoring and enforcing price-quantity contracts may increase dramatically in the case of price-quantity contracts. On the other hand, contract types are not important for the number of contracted farmers, the intensity of contracts, sales and profits for processors, because the purposes of different contract types are related with prevention of breaching contracts. By the way, the results indicate that the elasticity of profits with respect to capital is 0.52, which implies that the returns to investing in the food processing industry are relatively high in China.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Courant Research Centre PEG in its series Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers with number 63.
Date of creation: 08 Feb 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Platz der Goettinger Sieben 3; D-37073 Goettingen, GERMANY
Phone: +49 551 39 14066
Fax: + 49 551 39 14059
Web page: http://www.uni-goettingen.de/en/82144.html
Other versions of this item:
- Yu, Xiaohua & Abler, David G. & Peng, Chao, 2008. "Dancing with the Dragon Heads: Enforcement, Innovations and Efficiency of Contracts between Agricultural Processors and Farmers in China," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6144, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- NEP-AGR-2011-02-19 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2011-02-19 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2011-02-19 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CIS-2011-02-19 (Confederation of Independent States)
- NEP-TRA-2011-02-19 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gow, Hamish R. & Streeter, Deborah H. & Swinnen, Johan F. M., 2000. "How private contract enforcement mechanisms can succeed where public institutions fail: the case of Juhocukor a.s," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 253-265, September.
- Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
- MacDonald, James M. & Korb, Penelope J., 2006. "Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2003," Economic Information Bulletin 33903, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Ligon, Ethan, 2002.
"Estimation of an Efficient Tomato Contract,"
Staff General Research Papers
10235, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Chow, Gregory C, 1997. "Challenges of China's Economic System for Economic Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 321-27, May.
- Melkonian, Tigran A., 2004. "Quality Measurement and Contract Design: Evidence from the North American Sugar Beet Industry," Staff General Research Papers 12350, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
- Knoeber, Charles R, 1989. "A Real Game of Chicken: Contracts, Tournaments, and the Production of Broilers," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 271-92, Fall.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- Pan, Chenjun & Kinsey, Jean D., 2002. "The Supply Chain Of Pork: U.S. And China," Working Papers 14300, University of Minnesota, The Food Industry Center.
- Klein, Benjamin, 1996. "Why Hold-Ups Occur: The Self-Enforcing Range of Contractual Relationships," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(3), pages 444-63, July.
- Hamish R. Gow & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2001. "Private Enforcement Capital and Contract Enforcement in Transition Economies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(3), pages 686-690.
- Knoeber, Charles R & Thurman, Walter N, 1994. "Testing the Theory of Tournaments: An Empirical Analysis of Broiler Production," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(2), pages 155-79, April.
- Beckmann, Volker & Boger, Silke, 2003.
"Courts And Contract Enforcement In Transition Agriculture: Theory And Evidence From Poland,"
2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa
25878, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Beckmann, Volker & Boger, Silke, 2004. "Courts and contract enforcement in transition agriculture: theory and evidence from Poland," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 251-263, December.
- Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
- Gow, Hamish R & Swinnen, Johan F M, 1998. "Up- and Downstream Restructuring, Foreign Direct Investment, and Hold-Up Problems in Agricultural Transition," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 25(3), pages 331-50.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1978. "The Estimation of a Simultaneous Equation Generalized Probit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(5), pages 1193-1205, September.
- Key, Nigel & Runsten, David, 1999. "Contract Farming, Smallholders, and Rural Development in Latin America: The Organization of Agroprocessing Firms and the Scale of Outgrower Production," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 381-401, February.
- Yu, Xiaohua & Abler, David G. & Zeng, Yinchu, 2009. "Contractual Arrangements of Traders in Chinese Wholesale Markets," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51399, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dominik Noe).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.