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Spatial inequality and polarisation in India

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  • Farhad Noorbakhsh

Abstract

This paper analyses the extent of inequality amongst the major states of India over nearly two decades. It reviews various theoretical propositions for possible convergence and divergence and argues that while the evidence from the more developed countries supports the case of convergence the empirical evidence shows that the Indian states are on the course of divergence rather than convergence. The paper also investigates if the increasing inequality amongst the states have been coupled with polarisation. Some possible dimensions around which polarisation may have taken place are analysed of which some seem to be highly influential.

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Paper provided by Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow in its series Working Papers with number 2004_5.

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Handle: RePEc:gla:glaewp:2004_5

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  1. Fan, Shenggen & Hazell, P. B. R. & Thorat, Sukhadeo, 1999. "Linkages between government spending, growth, and poverty in rural India:," Research reports 110, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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  3. Milanovic, Branko, 1997. "A simple way to calculate the Gini coefficient, and some implications," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 45-49, September.
  4. Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  5. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Why Have Some Indian States Done Better Than Others at Reducing Rural Poverty?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(257), pages 17-38, February.
  7. Wolfson, Michael C, 1997. "Divergent Inequalities: Theory and Empirical Results," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 401-21, December.
  8. Kaldor, Nicholas, 1970. "The Case for Regional Policies," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 17(3), pages 337-48, November.
  9. Kapur Mehta, Aasha & Shah, Amita, 2003. "Chronic Poverty in India: Incidence, Causes and Policies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 491-511, March.
  10. Farhad Noorbakhsh, 1998. "Standards of living, human development indices and structural adjustments in developing countries: an empirical investigation," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(6), pages 751-775.
  11. Chatterji, Monojit, 1992. "Convergence Clubs and Endogenous Growth," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 57-69, Winter.
  12. Wolfson, Michael C, 1994. "When Inequalities Diverge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 353-58, May.
  13. Pyatt, Graham & Chen, Chau-nan & Fei, John, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-73, November.
  14. Farhad Noorbakhsh, . "Human Development and Regional Disparities in Iran:A Policy Model," Working Papers 2001_1, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  15. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  16. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
  17. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  18. Serge Coulombe, 2001. "Human Capital, Urbanization, and Canadian Provincial Growth," Working Papers 0105E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
  19. Robert J. Barro & Paul Romer, 1993. "Economic Growth," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number barr93-1, July.
    • Robert J. Barro & Paul M. Romer, 1991. "Economic Growth," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number barr91-1, July.
  20. X. Zhang & R. Kanbur, 2001. "What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 85-98.
  21. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 1254, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2232, David K. Levine.
  23. Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav, 2002. "Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 381-400, August.
  24. Baumol, William J & Wolff, Edward N, 1988. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1155-59, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Farhad Noorbakhsh & Shadan Noorbakhsh, . "Human Development and the World Bank Adjustment Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 2005_8, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  2. Gajwani, Kiran & Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2006. "Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective," DSGD discussion papers 44, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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