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Corruption Measurement: the case of Russian Federation

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  • Tatiana Zhuravleva

    (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)

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    Abstract

    This study develops the approach of corruption measurement based on the income-expenditure comparison. Using micro-level data on reported household earnings, expenditures and assets provided by Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for the period 2000-2009 we find that households with workers in the public sector receive lower earnings than their private sector counterparts, but enjoy the same level of consumption expenditures, in other words there exists an expenditure-income gap in favor of the public sector. Controlling for the reported level of earnings, households with workers in the private sector do not show neither a significantly higher probability of possessing country houses, cars and computers, nor living in better housing conditions, nor having higher financial wealth. The analysis of current and accumulated savings, risk aversion and volatility of wages does not show any sign of distinction between two sectors. Thus, differences in assets and precautionary motives of workers cannot reconcile the sizeable expenditure-income gap. Unexplained differences are referred to unreported income, or bribes.

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    File URL: http://www.iep.ru/files/RePEc/gai/wpaper/0068Zhuravleva.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2013
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy in its series Working Papers with number 0068.

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    Length: 33 pages
    Date of creation: 2013
    Date of revision: 2013
    Handle: RePEc:gai:wpaper:0068

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    Keywords: corruption measurement; expenditure-income gap; RLMS; Russian Federation;

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    1. Irina Slinko & Evgeny Yakovlev & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2004. "Laws for Sale: Evidence from Russia," Economics Working Papers 0046, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
    2. Pranab Bardhan, 1997. "Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 1320-1346, September.
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    4. Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1991. "The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 503-30, May.
    5. Benjamin A. Olken & Patrick Barron, 2007. "The Simple Economics of Extortion: Evidence from Trucking in Aceh," NBER Working Papers 13145, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Evgeny Yakovlev & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2006. "State Capture: From Yeltsin to Putin," Working Papers w0094, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    7. Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Sabirianova, Klara, 2006. "Public Sector Pay and Corruption: Measuring Bribery from Micro Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 5585, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Mauro, Paolo, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712, August.
    9. Olga Popova, 2010. "Corruption, Voting and Employment Status: Evidence from Russian Parliamentary Elections," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp428, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
    10. Sequeira, Sandra & Djankov, Simeon, 2010. "An Empirical Study of Corruption in Ports," MPRA Paper 21791, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Miriam A. Golden & Lucio Picci, 2005. "Proposal For A New Measure Of Corruption, Illustrated With Italian Data," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17, pages 37-75, 03.
    12. Ritva Reinikka & Jakob Svensson, 2004. "Local Capture: Evidence From a Central Government Transfer Program in Uganda," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(2), pages 678-704, May.
    13. Kurer, Oskar, 1993. " Clientelism, Corruption, and the Allocation of Resources," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 77(2), pages 259-73, October.
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