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The Valuation of American-Style Swaptions in a Two-factor Spot-Futures Model

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  • Sandra Peterson
  • Richard C. Stapleton
  • Marti G. Subrahmanyam
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    Abstract

    We build a no-arbitrage model of the term structure of interest rates using two stochastic factors, the short-term interest rate and the premium of the futures rate over the short-term interest rate. The model provides and extension of the lognormal interest rate model of Black and Karasinski (1991) to two factors, both of which can exhibit mean-reversion. The method is computationally efficient for several reasons. First, the model is based on Libor futures prices, enabling us to satisfy the no-arbitrage condition without resorting to iterative methods. Second, we modify and implement the binomial approximation methodology of Nelson and Ramaswamy (1990) and Ho, Stapleton and Subrahmanyam (1995) to compute a multiperiod tree of rates with the no-arbitrage property. The method uses a recombining two-dimensional binomial lattice of interest rates that minimizes the number of states and term structures over time. In addition to these computational advantages, a key feature of the model is that it is consistent with the observed term structure of futures rates as well as the term structure of volatilities implied by the prices of interest rate caps and floors. These prices are shown to be highly sensitive to the existence of the second factor and its volatility characteristics.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business- in its series New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires with number 99-078.

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    Date of creation: 08 Dec 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:fth:nystfi:99-078

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    Postal: U.S.A.; New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics . 44 West 4th Street. New York, New York 10012-1126
    Phone: (212) 998-0100
    Web page: http://w4.stern.nyu.edu/finance/
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    References

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    1. Alan Brace & Dariusz G´┐Żatarek & Marek Musiela, 1997. "The Market Model of Interest Rate Dynamics," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 127-155.
    2. R.C. Stapleton & Marti G. Subrahmanyam, 1999. "The Term Structure of Interest Rate-Futures Prices," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-045, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    3. Cox, John C. & Ingersoll, Jonathan Jr. & Ross, Stephen A., 1981. "The relation between forward prices and futures prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 321-346, December.
    4. Ho, Teng-Suan & Stapleton, Richard C & Subrahmanyam, Marti G, 1995. "Multivariate Binomial Approximations for Asset Prices with Nonstationary Variance and Covariance Characteristics," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1125-52.
    5. Marti G. Subrahmanyam & Anurag Gupta, 1998. "An Empirical Examination of the Convexity Bias in the Pricing of Interest Rate Swaps," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-068, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    6. Vasicek, Oldrich, 1977. "An equilibrium characterization of the term structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 177-188, November.
    7. Michael J. Brennan and Eduardo S. Schwartz., 1979. "A Continuous-Time Approach to the Pricing of Bonds," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 85, University of California at Berkeley.
    8. Miltersen, K. & K. Sandmann & D. Sondermann, 1994. "Closed Form Solutions for Term Structure Derivatives with Log-Normal Interest Rates," Discussion Paper Serie B 308, University of Bonn, Germany.
    9. Courtadon, Georges, 1982. "The Pricing of Options on Default-Free Bonds," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(01), pages 75-100, March.
    10. Nelson, Daniel B & Ramaswamy, Krishna, 1990. "Simple Binomial Processes as Diffusion Approximations in Financial Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(3), pages 393-430.
    11. Heath, David & Jarrow, Robert & Morton, Andrew, 1992. "Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 77-105, January.
    12. Pierluigi Balduzzi & Sanjiv Ranjan Das & Silverio Foresi, 1998. "The Central Tendency: A Second Factor In Bond Yields," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 62-72, February.
    13. Brennan, Michael J. & Schwartz, Eduardo S., 1979. "A continuous time approach to the pricing of bonds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 133-155, July.
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