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A Multifractal Model of Assets Returns

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  • Laurent Calvet
  • Adlai Fisher
  • Benoit Mandelbrot

Abstract

An important determinant of option prices is the elasticity of the pricing kernel used to price all decline in the economy. In this paper, we first show that for a given forward price of the underlying asset, option prices are higher when the elasticity of pricing kernel is declining than when it is constant. We then investigate the implications of the elasticity of the pricing kernel for the stochastic process followed by the underlying asset. Given that the underlying information process follows a geometric Brownlan motion, we demonstrate that constant elasticity of the pricing kernel is equivalent to a Brownlan motion for the forward price of the underlying asset, so that the Black-Scholes formula correctly prices option on the asset. In contrast, declining elasticity implies that he forward price process is no longer a Brownlan motion. It has higher volatility and exhibits autocorrelation. In this case, the Black-Scholes formula and underprices all options.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business- in its series New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires with number 99-072.

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Date of creation: Mar 1999
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Handle: RePEc:fth:nystfi:99-072

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Postal: U.S.A.; New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics . 44 West 4th Street. New York, New York 10012-1126
Phone: (212) 998-0100
Web page: http://w4.stern.nyu.edu/finance/
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  1. Benoit Mandelbrot, 1963. "The Variation of Certain Speculative Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36, pages 394.
  2. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-70, March.
  3. Drost, F.C. & Nijman, T.E., 1990. "Temporal Aggregation Of Garch Processes," Papers 9066, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
  4. Ghysels, E. & Gourieroux, C. & Jasiak, J., 1995. "Market Time and Asset Price Movements: Theory and Estimation," Cahiers de recherche 9536, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  5. GHYSELS, Eric & HARVEY, Andrew & RENAULT, Eric, 1995. "Stochastic Volatility," CORE Discussion Papers 1995069, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  6. Adlai Fisher & Laurent Calvet & Benoit Mandelbrot, 1997. "Multifractality of Deutschemark/US Dollar Exchange Rates," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1166, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  7. Drost, Feike C. & Werker, Bas J. M., 1996. "Closing the GARCH gap: Continuous time GARCH modeling," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 31-57, September.
  8. Dacorogna, Michael M. & Muller, Ulrich A. & Nagler, Robert J. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V., 1993. "A geographical model for the daily and weekly seasonal volatility in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 413-438, August.
  9. Benoit Mandelbrot, 1967. "The Variation of Some Other Speculative Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40, pages 393.
  10. Baillie, Richard T. & Bollerslev, Tim & Mikkelsen, Hans Ole, 1996. "Fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-30, September.
  11. Koedijk, Kees G & Kool, Clemens J M, 1992. "Tail Estimates of East European Exchange Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 83-96, January.
  12. Eugene F. Fama, 1963. "Mandelbrot and the Stable Paretian Hypothesis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36, pages 420.
  13. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-55, January.
  14. Engle, Robert F & Lilien, David M & Robins, Russell P, 1987. "Estimating Time Varying Risk Premia in the Term Structure: The Arch-M Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 391-407, March.
  15. Baillie, Richard T., 1996. "Long memory processes and fractional integration in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 5-59, July.
  16. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
  17. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
  18. Bollerslev, Tim & Engle, Robert F. & Nelson, Daniel B., 1986. "Arch models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: R. F. Engle & D. McFadden (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2959-3038 Elsevier.
  19. Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher & Benoit Mandelbrot, 1997. "Large Deviations and the Distribution of Price Changes," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1165, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  20. Eric Ghysels & Christian Gouriéroux & Joanna Jasiak, 1995. "Trading Patterns, Time Deformation and Stochastic Volatility in Foreign Exchange Markets," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-42, CIRANO.
  21. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
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