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Food security and trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization

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Author Info

  • Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio
  • Thomas, Marcelle
  • Robinson, Sherman
  • Cattaneo, Andrea

Abstract

An important issue in WTO trade negotiations is whether further liberalization of trade and agricultural policies may help or hinder food security in WTO member countries, especially the developing countries. The WTO recognizes various classifications of countries: developed, developing, least developed (LDC) and net food importing developing (NFIDC). How well do these categories capture issues of food security? This paper employs various methods of cluster analysis (including an approach based on fuzzy sets) and data for 167 countries to identify groups of countries categorized according to five measures of food security: food production per capita, the ratio of total exports to food imports, calories per capita, protein per capita, and the share of the non-agricultural population share. The analysis identifies 12 distinct clusters characterized by similarities and differences across the various measures. The analysis suggests that the LDC category consists of largely food insecure countries, but that there also are food insecure countries that are not LDCs. NFIDCs is less precise as an indicator of food vulnerability, with more than a third of those countries not falling under any of the food insecure groups. Also, the general category of “developing countries” is very heterogeneous and is not very useful if the focus is on issues of food security. Finally, our typology shows that all developed countries are included in food secure categories.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series TMD discussion papers with number 59.

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Date of creation: 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fpr:tmddps:59

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Related research

Keywords: Food production. ; Food security. ; Trade liberalization. ; World Trade Organization. ; Trade policy. ;

References

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  1. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. " Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
  2. Haddad, Lawrence James & Ruel, Marie T. & Garrett, James L., 1999. "Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing?," FCND discussion papers 63, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Ruel, Marie T. & Garrett, James L. & Morris, Saul Sutkover & Maxwell, Daniel G. & Oshaug, Arne & Engle, Patrice L. & Menon, Purnima & Slack, Alison T. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 1998. "Urban challenges to food and nutrition security," FCND discussion papers 51, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Smith, Lisa C., 1998. "Can FAO's measure of chronic undernourishment be strengthened?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 425-445, October.
  5. Smith, Lisa C. & Naiken, Logan, 1998. "Can FAO's measure of chronic undernourishment be strengthened?," FCND discussion papers 44, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Cattaneo, Andrea & Robinson, Sherman, 2000. "Empirical models, rules, and optimization," TMD discussion papers 53, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Delgado, Christopher L. & Hopkins, Jane & Kelly , Valerie & Hazell, P. B. R. & McKenna, Anna A. & Gruhn, Peter & Hojjati, Behjat & Sil, Jayashree & Courbois, Claude, 1998. "Agricultural growth linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa:," Research reports 107, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Ruel, Marie T. & Haddad, Lawrence James & Garrett, James L., 1999. "Some urban facts of life," FCND discussion papers 64, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  9. Smith, Lisa C. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 2000. "Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: a cross-country analysis," Research reports 111, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Xinshen Diao & Terry Roe & Agapi Somwaru, 2002. "Developing Country Interests in Agricultural Reforms under the World Trade Organization," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 782-790.
  2. Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Robinson, Sherman & Thomas, Marcelle, 2002. "On boxes, contents, and users," TMD discussion papers 82, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Wobst, Peter, 2000. "Why the poor care about partial versus general equilibrium effects - Part I," TMD discussion papers 60, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Trueblood, Michael A. & Shapouri, Shahla, 2002. "Food Insecurity In The Least Developed Countries And The International Response," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19615, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  5. Marilyne Huchet Bourdon & Catherine Laroche Dupraz & Anned-Linz Sénadin, 2013. "Impact du taux de change sur la sécurité alimentaire des pays en développement," Working Papers SMART - LERECO 201310, INRA UMR SMART.
  6. Anonymous, 2010. "Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, Volume 6, Issue 1," Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, vol. 6(1).
  7. Hewitt, Joanna, 2008. "Impact evaluation of research by the International Food Policy Research Institute on agricultural trade liberalization, developing countries, and WTO's Doha negotiations:," Impact assessments 28, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Alex F. McCalla & John Nash, 2007. "Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 2. Quantifyng the Impact of Multilateral Trade Reform," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13520, January.
  9. Riccardo Crescenzi & Guido Fabiani, 2007. "Globalisation and convergence of the agro-food systems of the industrial economies," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 2, May.
  10. Xinshen Diao & Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla & Sherman Robinson, 2003. "Scenarios for Trade Integration in the Americas," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 94-95, pages 33-51.
  11. Rapsomanikis, George & Sarris, Alexander, 2006. "The Impact of Domestic and International Commodity Price Volatility on Agricultural Income Instability: Ghana, Vietnam and Peru," Working Paper Series DP2006/04, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  12. Diao, Xinshen & Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Robinson, Sherman & Orden, David, 2005. "Tell me where it hurts, an' I'll tell you who to call," MTID discussion papers 84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  13. Merlinda D. Ingco, 2003. "Agriculture, Trade, and the WTO : Creating a Trading Environment for Development," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15208, January.
  14. Yu, Bingxin & You, Liangzhi & Fan, Shenggen, 2010. "Toward a typology of food security in developing countries:," IFPRI discussion papers 945, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  15. Ugo Gentilini, 2006. "How are We doing on Poverty and Hunger Reduction? A New Measyre of Country-Level Progress," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0068, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
  16. van Tongeren, Frank W. & van Meijl, Hans, 2006. "Multilateral Trade Liberalisation and Developing Countries: A North-South Perspective on Agriculture and Processing Sectors," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25462, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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