Agricultural policies in Vietnam
AbstractSince 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms – a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. Vietnam has become a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), signed several bilateral trade agreements and is currently negotiating accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). First positive results of the reform process became visible in the early 1990s when poverty declined to a large extent. Since then, the Vietnamese agricultural sector has also experienced high growth and impressive export achievements. The country changed from a food importer to one of the major exporters worldwide. The question arises to what extent support policies contributed to this growth, especially of the agricultural sector. In order to answer this question, domestic and trade policies in the agricultural sector are analysed and the market price support (MPS) and producer support estimates (PSEs) are calculated. To account for the special conditions in Vietnam, the MPS and PSEs are adjusted for country- and commodity-specific factors like transportation costs, marketing margins and the quality difference of exportables (or importables) at the border and domestically. The selected agricultural commodities for which the MPS and PSEs are estimated include rice, coffee, tea, rubber, pepper, sugar, groundnut, cashew nut and pig meat. These nine commodities are the main agricultural products and exportables of Vietnam. Their shares in total output exceed 70% allowing for a generalization of the calculated PSEs, thus roughly representing the whole agricultural sector. The finding is that most agricultural products were taxed in the mid 1980s until the mid 1990s. This was often due to large inefficiencies in the production and processing of agricultural commodities, the dominance and monopoly position of the state-owned sector, restrictive trade policies like import and export quotas and licenses, and distorted markets and prices in the country. The domestic reform process, the opening of the economy since the early 1990s, and the shift from an import-substitution strategy towards export-promotion, however, impacted on the gaps between the domestic and international prices. Thus, since the mid 1990s, the support of agriculture increased - but still reaching only rather low levels. At its peak, the %PSE for the agricultural sector was 24.2% which is moderate compared with other countries. The low level of protection implies that Vietnam may not face excessive difficulties in its further international integration. This study of Vietnam is the third comprehensive review conducted within an IFPRI project on understanding and assessing domestic and trade policies in the agricultural sector in developing countries. The data are meant to deliver a basis for further trade-related research to be conducted in the future.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series MTID discussion papers with number 79.
Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
Agricultural policies ; Markets ; Free trade ; Trade agreements ; World Trade Organization ; Poverty ;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2005-02-13 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2005-02-13 (All new papers)
- NEP-SEA-2005-02-13 (South East Asia)
- NEP-TRA-2005-02-13 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tarp Jensen, Henning & Tarp, Finn, 2004.
"Trade Liberalization and Spatial Inequality: A Methodological Innovation in Vietnamese Perspective,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Henning Tarp Jensen & Finn Tarp, 2005. "Trade Liberalization and Spatial Inequality: a Methodological Innovation in a Vietnamese Perspective," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 69-86, 02.
- Martin, Will, 2001. "Trade policy reform in the East Asian transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2535, The World Bank.
- Schmidt, Uwe, 2003. "Vietnam's accession to the WTO: A roadmap for a rational approach in trade liberalization," Duisburg Working Papers on East Asian Economic Studies 66, University Duisburg-Essen, Asia-Pacific Economic Research Institute (FIP).
- Thomas, Marcelle & Orden, David, 2004. "Agricultural policies in Indonesia," MTID discussion papers 78, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Mullen, Kathleen & Sun, Dongsheng & Orden, David & Gulati, Ashok, 2004. "Producer Support Estimates (PSEs) for agriculture in developing countries," MTID discussion papers 74, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Jean-Raphael Chaponniere & Jean-Pierre Cling, 2009. "Vietnam's Export-Led Growth Model and Competition with China," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 118, pages 101-130.
- Rakotoarisoa, Manitra A., 2006. "Policy distortions in the segmented rice market:," MTID discussion papers 94, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Lord, Montague J., 2000.
"Viet Nam: Small Scale Technical assistance for Capacity Building of Ministry of Finance to Support Tariff, Industry and Subsidy Analysis for the WTO Accession,"
41158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lord, Montague, 2005. "Viet Nam: Small Scale Technical assistance for Capacity Building of Ministry of Finance to Support Tariff, Industry and Subsidy Analysis for the WTO Accession," MPRA Paper 50629, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Rakotoarisoa, Manitra A., 2008. "The Impact of Agricultural Policy Distortions on the Productivity Gap: Evidence from the Rice Production," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6154, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Cheng, Fuzhi & Orden, David, 2005. "Exchange rate misalignment and its effects on agricultural producer support estimates," MTID discussion papers 81, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.