Determinants of household access to and participation in formal and informal credit markets in Malawi
AbstractThe paper uses the concept of credit limit to analyze the determinants of household access to and participation in informal and formal credit markets in Malawi. Households are found to be credit constrained, on average, both in the formal and informal sectors; they borrow, on average, less than half of any increase in their credit lines. Furthermore, they are not discouraged in their participation and borrowing decisions by further increases in the formal interest rate and/or the transaction costs associated with getting formal credit. This suggests that getting access to credit is much more important than its cost for these households. Hence, credit policies should focus on making access easier rather than providing credit with subsidized interest rates. The composition of household assets is found to be much more important as a determinant of household access to formal credit than the total value of household assets or landholding size. In particular, a higher share of land and livestock in the total value of household assets is negatively correlated with access to formal credit. However, land remains a significant determinant of access to informal credit. Therefore, poor households whose assets consist mostly of land and livestock but who want to diversify into nonfarm income generation activities may be constrained by lack of capital. As informal loans are usually too small to help poor households start a viable nonfarm business, these households may be forced to rely on farming as the sole source of income, despite its unreliability because of the frequency of drought in Malawi. Finally, formal and informal credit are found to be imperfect substitutes. In particular, formal credit, whenever available, reduces but does not completely eliminate informal borrowing. This suggests that the two forms of credit fulfill different functions in the household's intertemporal transfer of resources.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series FCND discussion papers with number 67.
Date of creation: 1999
Date of revision:
Microfinance ; Credit. ; Land tenure Malawi. ; Assets. ; Malawi. ;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997.
"Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments,"
Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Udry, Christopher, 1995. "Risk and Saving in Northern Nigeria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1287-1300, December.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Alderman, H. & Paxson, C.H., 1992.
"Do the Poor Insure? A Synthesis of the Literature on Risk and Consumption in Developing Countries,"
164, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
- Alderman, Harold & Paxson, Christina H & DEC, 1992. "Do the poor insure? A synthesis of the literature on risk and consumption in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1008, The World Bank.
- Jappelli, Tullio, 1990. "Who Is Credit Constrained in the U.S. Economy?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(1), pages 219-34, February.
- Martin Browning & Annamaria Lusardi, 1995.
"Household Saving: Micro Theories and Micro Facts,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
1995-02, McMaster University.
- Coate, Stephen & Ravallion, Martin, 1993. "Reciprocity without commitment : Characterization and performance of informal insurance arrangements," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-24, February.
- E.K. Berndt & B.H. Hall & R.E. Hall, 1974. "Estimation and Inference in Nonlinear Structural Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 3, number 4, pages 103-116 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diagne, Aliou & Zeller, Manfred & Sharma, Manohar, 2000.
"Empirical measurements of households' access to credit and credit constraints in developing countries,"
90, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Diagne, Aliou & Zeller, Manfred & Sharma, Manohar, 2000. "Empirical measurements of households' access to credit and credit constraints in developing countries," FCND discussion papers 90, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Robert M. Townsend, .
"Risk and Insurance in Village India,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
91-3a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Zeller, Manfred & Ahmed, Akhter U. & Babu, Suresh Chandra & Broca, Sumiter S. & Diagne, Aliou & Sharma, Manohar, 1996. "Rural finance policies for food security of the poor," FCND discussion papers 11, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Zeller, Manfred & Diagne, Aliou & Mataya, Charles, 1998. "Market access by smallholder farmers in Malawi: implications for technology adoption, agricultural productivity and crop income," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 219-229, September.
- Feder, Gershon & Lau, Lawrence J. & Lin, Justin Y. & Xiaopeng Luo, 1991. "Credit's effect on productivity in Chinese agriculture : a microeconomic model of disequilibrium," Policy Research Working Paper Series 571, The World Bank.
- Gersovitz, Mark, 1988. "Saving and development," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 381-424 Elsevier.
- Schmidt, Peter & Strauss, Robert P, 1975. "The Prediction of Occupation Using Multiple Logit Models," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 16(2), pages 471-86, June.
- Li, Xia & Gan, Christopher & Hu, Baiding, 2011. "Accessibility to microcredit by Chinese rural households," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 235-246, June.
- Petracco, Carly K. & Pender, John L., 2009.
"Evaluating the Impact of Land Tenure and Titling on Access to Credit in Uganda,"
2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China
51899, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Petracco, Carly K. & Pender, John, 2009. "Evaluating the impact of land tenure and titling on access to credit in Uganda:," IFPRI discussion papers 853, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Doan, Tinh & Gibson, John & Holmes, Mark, 2010. "What determines credit participation and credit constraints of the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam?," MPRA Paper 27509, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Dec 2010.
- Khoi, Phan Dinh & Gan, Christopher & Nartea, Gilbert V. & Cohen, David A., 2013. "Formal and informal rural credit in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam: Interaction and accessibility," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 1-13.
- Brehanu, Amare & Fufa, Bekabil, 2008. "Repayment rate of loans from semi-formal financial institutions among small-scale farmers in Ethiopia: Two-limit Tobit analysis," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2221-2230, December.
- Zeller, Manfred & Sharma, Manohar, 2000. "Many borrow, more save, and all insure: implications for food and micro-finance policy," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 143-167, April.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.