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Does cash crop adoption detract from childcare provision?

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  • Paolisso, Michael J.
  • Hallman, Kelly
  • Haddad, Lawrence James
  • Regmi, Shibesh

Abstract

Using data from fieldwork conducted in Nepal, the impact of a project designed to commercialize vegetables and fruits — the Vegetable and Fruit Cash Crop Program (VFC)— on male and female time allocation is examined. Using a rigorous time collection methodology, activity patterns in households that adopt and do not adopt the new technology are profiled. Very few studies examine changing activity patterns of both men and women in response to commercialization of agriculture. Though women's time is valuable in agriculture, it is also valuable in the production of child nutrition. The recent evolution in thinking as to the causes of child malnutrition—the three pillars being food intake, health, and time to care—warrants further analyses of the time trade-offs that women and men face when adopting new agricultural technologies. The VFC program was successful at targeting both men and women farmers in the sense that household participation resulted in increased head male and head female time spent growing vegetables and fruits. The responses varied, however, by the number of preschool children in residence. In households with more than one preschooler, the time trade-offs associated with VFC participation were not sizeable for the care of children under 5 years. In households with just one preschooler, the trade-offs were more important. In these households, preschoolers received less care from the male and female heads, who spent more time in both the cash crop and in the food crop. In these same households, the nonwork (leisure) time of men increased as a result of VFC participation, but for women, leisure time was unaffected. Thus in the short run, there is perhaps scope for protecting childcare time by reducing time to leisure. In the medium run, benefits may well accrue to unborn preschoolers if VFC participation empowers women.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series FCND briefs with number 109.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fpr:fcndbr:109

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Keywords: Child care. ; Malnutrition Nepal. ; Children Nutrition. ; Cash crops Nepal. ;

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References

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  1. Skoufias, E., 1989. "Labor Market Opportunities And Interafamily Time Allocation In Rural Households In South Asia," Papers 3-90-2, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  2. Udry, Christopher & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & Haddad, Lawrence, 1995. "Gender differentials in farm productivity: implications for household efficiency and agricultural policy," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 407-423, October.
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  4. Ruel, Marie T. & Levin, Carol E. & Armar-Klemesu, Margaret & Maxwell, Daniel & Morris, Saul S., 1999. "Good Care Practices Can Mitigate the Negative Effects of Poverty and Low Maternal Schooling on Children's Nutritional Status: Evidence from Accra," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 1993-2009, November.
  5. Haddad, Lawrence, 1999. "The income earned by women: impacts on welfare outcomes," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 135-141, March.
  6. Awudu Abdulai & Christopher L. Delgado, 1999. "Determinants of Nonfarm Earnings of Farm-Based Husbands and Wives in Northern Ghana," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(1), pages 117-130.
  7. John L. Newman & Paul J. Gertler, 1994. "Family Productivity, Labor Supply, and Welfare in a Low Income Country," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 989-1026.
  8. Baksh, Michael & Neumann, Charlotte G. & Paolisso, Michael & Trostle, Richard M. & Jansen, A. A. J., 1994. "The influence of reproductive status on rural Kenyan women's time use," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 345-354, August.
  9. Ayal Kimhi & Myoung-jae Lee, 1996. "Off-Farm Work Decisions of Farm Couples: Estimating Structural Simultaneous Equations with Ordered Categorical Dependent Variables," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 687-698.
  10. Haddad, Lawrence, 1999. "The income earned by women: impacts on welfare outcomes," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 20(2), March.
  11. Bouis, Howarth E., 1994. "Agricultural technology and food policy to combat iron deficiency in developing countries," FCND discussion papers 1, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  12. von Braun, Joachim & Webb, Patrick J R, 1989. "The Impact of New Crop Technology on the Agricultural Division of Labor in a West African Setting," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(3), pages 513-34, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & McClafferty, Bonnie, 2006. "Using gender research in development: food security in practice," Food security in practice technical guide series 2, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Robinson, Sherman & Thomas, Marcelle, 2002. "On boxes, contents, and users," TMD discussion papers 82, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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