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Causation Delays and Causal Neutralization: The Money-Output Relationship Revisited

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  • Jonathan B. Hill

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Florida International University)

Abstract

In this paper, we develop a parametric test procedure for multiple horizon ”Granger” causality and apply the procedure to the well established problem of determining causal patterns in aggregate monthly U.S. money and output. As opposed to most papers in the parametric causality literature, we are interested in whether money ever "causes" (can ever be used to forecast) output, when causation occurs, and how (through which causal chains). For brevity, we consider only causal patterns up to horizon h = 3. Our tests are based on new recursive parametric characterizations of causality chains which help to distinguish between mere noncausation (the total absence of indirect causal routes) and causal neutralization, in which several causal routes exists that cancel each other out such that noncausation occurs. In many cases the recursive characterizations imply greatly simplified linear compound hypotheses for multi-step ahead causation, and permit Wald tests with the usual asymptotic chi-square distribution. A simulation study demonstrates that a sequential test method does not generate the type of size distortions typically reported in the literature, and null rejection frequencies depend entirely on how we define the "null hypothesis" of non-causality (at which horizon, if any). Using monthly data employed in Stock and Watson (1989), and others, we demonstrate that while Friedman and Kuttner’s (1993) result that detrended money growth fails to cause output one month ahead continues into the third quarter of 2003, a significant causal lag may exist through a variety of short-term interest rates: money appears to cause output after at least one month passes, although in some cases using recent data conflicting evidence suggests money may never cause output and be truly irrelevant in matters of real decisions.

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File URL: http://casgroup.fiu.edu/pages/docs/2245/1280267945_04-03.pdf
File Function: Revised version, 2005
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Florida International University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 0403.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fiu:wpaper:0403

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Postal: Miami, FL 33199
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Web page: http://casgroup.fiu.edu/Economics/
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Keywords: multiple horizon causation; multivariate time series; sequential tests;

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References

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  1. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & PELLETIER, Denis & RENAULT, Éric, 2003. "Short Run and Long Run Causality in Time Series : Inference," Cahiers de recherche 14-2003, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  2. Friedman, Benjamin M & Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1992. "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 472-92, June.
  3. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
  4. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1987. "Interpreting Evidence on Money-Income Causality," NBER Working Papers 2228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Jonathan B. Hill, 2004. "Efficient Tests of Long-Run Causation in Trivariate VAR Processes with a Rolling Window Study of the Money-Income Relationship," Macroeconomics 0407013, EconWPA, revised 17 May 2005.
  6. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1990. "Another look at the evidence on money-income casualty," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 90-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  7. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  8. Jean-Marie Dufour & Eric Renault, 1998. "Short Run and Long Run Causality in Time Series: Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1099-1126, September.
  9. Jean-Marie Dufour & Tarek Jouini, 2005. "Finite-Sample Simulation-Based Inference in VAR Models with Applications to Order Selection and Causality Testing," CIRANO Working Papers 2005s-26, CIRANO.
  10. Philip Rothman & Dick van Dijk & Philip Hans Franses, 1999. "A Multivariate STAR Analysis of the Relationship Between Money and Output," Working Papers 9913, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.
  11. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1989. "Interpreting the evidence on money-income causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 161-181, January.
  12. Lutkepohl, Helmut & Burda, Maike M., 1997. "Modified Wald tests under nonregular conditions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 315-332, June.
  13. Renault, E. & Szafarz, A., 1991. "True Versus Spurious Instantaneous Causality," Papers 9103, Universite Libre de Bruxelles - C.E.M.E..
  14. Norman R. Swanson, 2000. "An Out of Sample Test for Granger Causality," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0362, Econometric Society.
  15. Feige, Edgar L & Pearce, Douglas K, 1979. "The Casual Causal Relationship between Money and Income: Some Caveats for Time Series Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 61(4), pages 521-33, November.
  16. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Testing for causality : A personal viewpoint," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 329-352, May.
  17. Swanson, Norman R., 1998. "Money and output viewed through a rolling window," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 455-474, May.
  18. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
  19. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
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