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The output gap, expected future inflation and inflation dynamics: another look

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  • Yash P. Mehra
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    Abstract

    The empirical test of the output gap-based New Keynesian Phillips curve often has been implemented by estimating a hybrid specification that includes both lagged and future inflation and then by examining whether the estimated coefficient on future inflation is significantly larger than the one on lagged inflation. This article presents the evidence that indicates supply shocks significantly enter the hybrid specification. The results reported in previous research — the output gap is irrelevant and expected future inflation is the major determinant of inflation — arise if the hybrid specification is estimated omitting supply shocks and/or lagged inflation. In the hybrid specification estimated with supply shocks, the output gap is significant. The estimated coefficient on future inflation is quantitatively small, but the estimated coefficient on lagged inflation is significantly larger than the one on future inflation. The null hypothesis that the estimated coefficient on lagged inflation is unity is not rejected if the hybrid specification nests an alternative version of the traditional Phillips curve in which inflation responds also to a change in the output gap. Together these results suggest that expected future inflation is not the major determinant of current inflation.

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    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond in its series Working Paper with number 04-06.

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    Date of creation: 2004
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    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedrwp:04-06

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    Keywords: Inflation (Finance);

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    1. Jeff Fuhrer & George Moore, 1993. "Inflation persistence," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Mar.
    2. N. Gregory Mankiw & Ricardo Reis, 2001. "Sticky Information Versus Sticky Prices: A Proposal to Replace the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1922, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    3. Robert J. Hodrick & Edward Prescott, 1981. "Post-War U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation," Discussion Papers 451, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    4. Jeremy Rudd & Karl Whelan, 2001. "New tests of the New-Keynesian Phillips curve," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Mark Bils & Yongsung Chang, 1999. "Understanding How Price Responds to Costs and Production," NBER Working Papers 7311, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Fuhrer, Jeffrey C, 1997. "The (Un)Importance of Forward-Looking Behavior in Price Specifications," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 338-50, August.
    7. Roberts, John M, 1995. "New Keynesian Economics and the Phillips Curve," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(4), pages 975-84, November.
    8. Jordi Gali & Mark Gertler, 2000. "Inflation Dynamics: A Structural Econometric Analysis," NBER Working Papers 7551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1983. "Staggered prices in a utility-maximizing framework," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 383-398, September.
    10. Michael Dotsey, 2002. "Pitfalls in interpreting tests of backward-looking pricing in New Keynesian models," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 37-50.
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    Cited by:
    1. Kirsanova, Tatiana & Vines, David & Wren-Lewis, Simon, 2006. "Inflation Bias with Dynamic Phillips Curves," CEPR Discussion Papers 5534, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Kuralbayeva, Karlygash, 2011. "Inflation persistence and exchange rate regime: Implications for dynamic adjustment to shocks in a small open economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 193-205, June.
    3. Karlygash Kuralbayeva, 2007. "Inflation persistence: Implications for a design of monetary policy in a small open economy subject to external shocks," CEIS Research Paper 93, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
    4. Tatiana Kirsanova & David Vines & Mathan Satchi & Simon Wren-Lewis, 2005. "Optimal Fiscal Policy Rules in a Monetary Union," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 40, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    5. Scheibe, Jörg & Vines, David, 2005. "A Phillips Curve for China," CEPR Discussion Papers 4957, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Bedri Kamil Onur Tas, 2007. "Inflation Targeting as a Signalling Mechanism," Working Papers 0701, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Department of Economics.
    7. Kirsanova, Tatiana & Vines, David & Wren-Lewis, Simon, 2006. "Fiscal Policy and Macroeconomic Stability Within a Currency Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 5584, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Luojia Hu & Maude Toussaint-Comeau, 2010. "Do labor market activities help predict inflation?," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 52-63.
    9. Svan Jari Stehn & David Vines, 2007. "Debt Stabilisation Bias And The Taylor Principle: Optimal Policy In A New Keynesian Model With Government Debt And Inflation Persistence," CAMA Working Papers 2007-22, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    10. Tas, Bedri Kamil Onur, 2011. "An explanation for the price puzzle: Asymmetric information and expectation dynamics," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 259-275, June.
    11. Tomasz Michalak & Jacob Engwerda & Joseph Plasmans, 2009. "Strategic Interactions between Fiscal and Monetary Authorities in a Multi-Country New-Keynesian Model of a Monetary Union," CESifo Working Paper Series 2534, CESifo Group Munich.
    12. Nicolas Pinkwart, 2013. "Quantifying The European Central Bank'S Interest Rate Smoothing Behavior," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81(4), pages 470-492, 07.

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