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Liquidity hoarding

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  • Douglas Gale
  • Tanju Yorulmazer

Abstract

Banks hold liquid and illiquid assets. An illiquid bank that receives a liquidity shock sells assets to liquid banks in exchange for cash. We characterize the constrained efficient allocation as the solution to a planner’s problem and show that the market equilibrium is constrained inefficient, with too little liquidity and inefficient hoarding. Our model features a precautionary as well as a speculative motive for hoarding liquidity, but the inefficiency of liquidity provision can be traced to the incompleteness of markets (due to private information) and the increased price volatility that results from trading assets for cash.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 488.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:488

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Keywords: Bank liquidity ; Bank assets ; Interbank market;

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References

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  1. Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2009. "Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2358, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Sep 2009.
  2. Acharya, Viral V. & Gale, Douglas M & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2009. "Rollover Risk and Market Freezes," CEPR Discussion Papers 7122, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1998. "Optimal Financial Crises," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1245-1284, 08.
  4. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises," NBER Working Papers 8937, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Pierre-Olivier Weill & Guillaume Rocheteau & Ricardo Lagos, 2010. "Crises and Liquidity in Over-the-counter Markets," 2010 Meeting Papers 500, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  6. Heider, Florian & Hoerova, Marie & Holthausen, Cornelia, 2010. "Liquidity Hoarding and Interbank Market Spreads: The Role of Counterparty Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 7762, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Adam Ashcraft & James McAndrews & David Skeie, 2009. "Precautionary reserves and the interbank market," Staff Reports 370, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  8. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2005. "From Cash-in-the-Market Pricing to Financial Fragility," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 535-546, 04/05.
  9. Lev Ratnovski & Rocco Huang, 2010. "The Dark Side of Bank Wholesale Funding," IMF Working Papers 10/170, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Martin Oehmke, 2010. "The Maturity Rat Race," NBER Working Papers 16607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Lasse Heje Pederson & Markus K Brunnermeier, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," FMG Discussion Papers dp580, Financial Markets Group.
  12. Viral V. Acharya & Ouarda Merrouche, 2010. "Precautionary Hoarding of Liquidity and Inter-Bank Markets: Evidence from the Sub-prime Crisis," NBER Working Papers 16395, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Gary Gorton & Lixin Huang, 2002. "Liquidity, Efficiency and Bank Bailouts," NBER Working Papers 9158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Viral V. Acharya & David Skeie, 2011. "A model of liquidity hoarding and term premia in inter-bank markets," Staff Reports 498, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  15. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2003. "Financial Intermediaries and Markets," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-44, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  16. Gara Afonso & Anna Kovner & Antoinette Schoar, 2010. "Stressed not Frozen: The Fed Funds Market in the Financial Crisis," NBER Working Papers 15806, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Viral V. Acharya & Hyun Song Shin & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2011. "Crisis Resolution and Bank Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 2166-2205.
  18. Gara Afonso & Anna Kovner & Antoinette Schoar, 2011. "Stressed, Not Frozen: The Federal Funds Market in the Financial Crisis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(4), pages 1109-1139, 08.
  19. Acharya, Viral V & Gromb, Denis & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2008. "Imperfect Competition in the Inter-Bank Market for Liquidity as a Rationale for Central Banking," CEPR Discussion Papers 6984, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2010. "Liquidity, Bank Runs, and Bailouts: Spillover Effects During the Northern Rock Episode," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 83-98, June.
  21. David Easley & Maureen O'Hara, 2009. "Ambiguity and Nonparticipation: The Role of Regulation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(5), pages 1817-1843, May.
  22. Easley, David & O'Hara, Maureen, 2010. "Liquidity and valuation in an uncertain world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 1-11, July.
  23. Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "Reflections on Northern Rock: The Bank Run That Heralded the Global Financial Crisis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 101-19, Winter.
  24. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. " Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-66, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Fecht, Falko & Eder, Armin & Pausch, Thilo, 2013. "Banks, Markets, and Financial Stability," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79712, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  2. Nikolaou, Kleopatra, 2009. "Liquidity (risk) concepts: definitions and interactions," Working Paper Series 1008, European Central Bank.
  3. Lena Tonzer, 2013. "Cross-Border Interbank Networks, Banking Risk and Contagion," FIW Working Paper series 129, FIW.
  4. Filipović, Damir & Trolle, Anders B., 2013. "The term structure of interbank risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 707-733.
  5. Jimenez Porras, G. & Ongena, S. & Peydro, J.L. & Saurina, J., 2012. "Credit Supply versus Demand: Bank and Firm Balance-Sheet Channels in Good and Crisis Times," Discussion Paper 2012-005, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  6. de Haan, Leo & van den End, Jan Willem, 2013. "Banks’ responses to funding liquidity shocks: Lending adjustment, liquidity hoarding and fire sales," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 152-174.
  7. Acharya, Viral V & Viswanathan, S, 2008. "Moral Hazard, Collateral and Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 6630, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Merrouche, Ouarda & Nier, Erlend, 2010. "Payment systems, inside money and financial intermediation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5445, The World Bank.
  9. Viral V. Acharya & David Skeie, 2011. "A model of liquidity hoarding and term premia in inter-bank markets," Staff Reports 498, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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