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Funding liquidity risk and the cross-section of stock returns

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  • Tobias Adrian
  • Erkko Etula

Abstract

We derive equilibrium pricing implications from an intertemporal capital asset pricing model where the tightness of financial intermediaries’ funding constraints enters the pricing kernel. We test the resulting factor model in the cross-section of stock returns. Our empirical results show that stocks that hedge against adverse shocks to funding liquidity earn lower average returns. The pricing performance of our three-factor model is surprisingly strong across specifications and test assets, including portfolios sorted by industry, size, book-to-market, momentum, and long-term reversal. Funding liquidity can thus account for well-known asset pricing anomalies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 464.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:464

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Keywords: Capital assets pricing model ; Intermediation (Finance) ; Stocks - Rate of return ; Assets (Accounting) ; Liquidity (Economics);

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References

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  1. Jagannathan, Ravi & Wang, Zhenyu, 1996. " The Conditional CAPM and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 3-53, March.
  2. Robert J. Hodrick & David Tat-Chee Ng & Paul Sengmueller, 1999. "An International Dynamic Asset Pricing Model," NBER Working Papers 7157, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Tobias Adrian & Emanuel Moench, 2008. "Pricing the term structure with linear regressions," Staff Reports 340, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  4. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2008. "Liquidity and leverage," Staff Reports 328, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  5. Robert F. Engle & Joshua Rosenberg, 1966. "Testing the Volatility Term Structure Using Option Hedging Criteria," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-24, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  6. Lasse Heje Pederson & Markus K Brunnermeier, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," FMG Discussion Papers dp580, Financial Markets Group.
  7. Jean-Pierre Zigrand & Hyun Song Shin & Jon Danielsson, 2010. "Risk Appetite and Endogenous Risk," FMG Discussion Papers dp647, Financial Markets Group.
  8. Tobias Adrian & Joshua Rosenberg, 2006. "Stock returns and volatility: pricing the short-run and long-run components of market risk," Staff Reports 254, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  9. Denis Gromb & Dimitri Vayanos, 2002. "Equilibrium and welfare in markets with financially constrained arbitrageurs," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 448, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  10. Ravi Jagannathan & Zhenyu Wang, 1998. "An Asymptotic Theory for Estimating Beta-Pricing Models Using Cross-Sectional Regression," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1285-1309, 08.
  11. Christopher M. Turner & Richard Startz & Charles R. Nelson, 1989. "A Markov Model of Heteroskedasticity, Risk, and Learning in the Stock Market," NBER Working Papers 2818, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Hyun Song Shin & Erkko Etula & Tobias Adrian, 2010. "Risk Appetite and Exchange Rates," 2010 Meeting Papers 311, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  13. Martin Lettau & Jessica A. Wachter, 2007. "Why Is Long-Horizon Equity Less Risky? A Duration-Based Explanation of the Value Premium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 55-92, 02.
  14. Basak, Suleyman & Croitoru, Benjamin, 2000. "Equilibrium Mispricing in a Capital Market with Portfolio Constraints," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 715-48.
  15. Bansal, Ravi & Viswanathan, S, 1993. " No Arbitrage and Arbitrage Pricing: A New Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1231-62, September.
  16. K. Rouwenhorst, 1998. "Local Return Factors and Turnover in Emerging Stock Markets," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm97, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Mar 2001.
  17. Hyun Song Shin & Emanuel Moench & Tobias Adrian, 2010. "Financial Intermediation, Asset Prices, and Macroeconomic Dynamics," 2010 Meeting Papers 297, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  18. Chacko, George & Viceira, Luis M., 2003. "Spectral GMM estimation of continuous-time processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 259-292.
  19. Ng, David T., 2004. "The international CAPM when expected returns are time-varying," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 189-230, March.
  20. Erkko Etula, 2009. "Broker-dealer risk appetite and commodity returns," Staff Reports 406, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  21. Bansal, Ravi & Hsieh, David A & Viswanathan, S, 1993. " A New Approach to International Arbitrage Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1719-47, December.
  22. Jonathan Lewellen & Stefan Nagel & Jay Shanken, 2006. "A Skeptical Appraisal of Asset-Pricing Tests," NBER Working Papers 12360, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2008. "Financial intermediary leverage and value at risk," Staff Reports 338, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  24. Shanken, Jay, 1992. "On the Estimation of Beta-Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 1-33.
  25. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Tobias Adrian & Erkko Etula & Jan J. J. Groen, 2010. "Financial amplification of foreign exchange risk premia," Staff Reports 461, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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