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Liquidity and congestion

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  • Gara M. Afonso

Abstract

This paper studies the relationship between the arrival of potential investors and market liquidity in a search-based model of asset trading. The entry of investors into a specific market causes two contradictory effects. First, it reduces trading costs, which then attracts new investors (the thick market externality effect). But second, as investors concentrate on one side of the market, the market becomes "congested," decreasing the returns to participating in this market and discouraging new investors from entering (what we call the congestion effect). The equilibrium level of market liquidity depends on which of the two effects dominates. When congestion is the leading effect, some interesting results arise. In particular, we find that diminishing trading costs in our market can impair liquidity and reduce welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 349.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:349

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Keywords: Liquidity (Economics) ; Investments ; Rate of return ; Markov processes;

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  1. Dimitri Vayanos & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2008. "A Search-Based Theory of the On-the-Run Phenomenon," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1361-1398, 06.
  2. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2009. "Liquidity in Asset Markets With Search Frictions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(2), pages 403-426, 03.
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  8. Weill, Pierre-Olivier, 2008. "Liquidity premia in dynamic bargaining markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 66-96, May.
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  11. Pissarides, Christopher A, 1985. "Short-run Equilibrium Dynamics of Unemployment Vacancies, and Real Wages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 676-90, September.
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  13. P. Diamond, 1980. "Aggregate Demand Management in Search Equilibrium," Working papers 268, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  14. Brunnermeier, Markus K & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 6179, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "Rationalizability, Learning, and Equilibrium in Games with Strategic Complementarities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(6), pages 1255-77, November.
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  17. Guillaume Plantin, 2004. "Self-Fulfilling Liquidity and the Coordination Premium," GSIA Working Papers 2005-E3, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  18. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2005. "Liquidity and Asset Prices," MPRA Paper 24768, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  19. Darrell Duffie & Nicolae Garleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2004. "Over-the-Counter Markets," NBER Working Papers 10816, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Pagano, Marco, 1989. "Trading Volume and Asset Liquidity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 255-74, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Pierre-Olivier Weill & Bruno Biais, 2009. "Liquidity shocks and order book dynamics," 2009 Meeting Papers 89, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Afonso, Gara M. & Lagos, Ricardo, 2014. "Trade Dynamics in the Market for Federal Funds," Working Papers 710, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Max Bruche & Anatoli Segura, 2013. "Debt maturity and the liquidity of secondary debt markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 55404, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  4. Pierre-Olivier Weill & Guillaume Rocheteau & Ricardo Lagos, 2010. "Crises and Liquidity in Over-the-counter Markets," 2010 Meeting Papers 500, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  5. Andrew G. Atkeson & Andrea L. Eisfeldt & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2013. "The Market for OTC Derivatives," NBER Working Papers 18912, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Makoto Watanabe, 2012. "Middlemen: A Directed Search Equilibrium Approach," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-138/V, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Patrick Bolton & Tano Santos & Jose A. Scheinkman, 2011. "Cream Skimming in Financial Markets," NBER Working Papers 16804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Guillaume Rocheteau & Pierre‐Olivier Weill, 2011. "Liquidity in Frictional Asset Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43, pages 261-282, October.
  9. Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas, 2013. "Does stock market development always improve firm-level financing? Evidence from Tunisia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 183-208.
  10. Selcuk, Cemil, 2012. "Distressed sales and liquidity in OTC markets," MPRA Paper 38188, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Gara Afonso & Anna Kovner & Antoinette Schoar, 2013. "Trading partners in the interbank lending market," Staff Reports 620, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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