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Liquidity and congestion

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  • Gara M. Afonso

Abstract

This paper studies the relationship between the arrival of potential investors and market liquidity in a search-based model of asset trading. The entry of investors into a specific market causes two contradictory effects. First, it reduces trading costs, which then attracts new investors (the thick market externality effect). But second, as investors concentrate on one side of the market, the market becomes "congested," decreasing the returns to participating in this market and discouraging new investors from entering (what we call the congestion effect). The equilibrium level of market liquidity depends on which of the two effects dominates. When congestion is the leading effect, some interesting results arise. In particular, we find that diminishing trading costs in our market can impair liquidity and reduce welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 349.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:349

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Keywords: Liquidity (Economics) ; Investments ; Rate of return ; Markov processes;

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References

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  1. Darrell Duffie & Nicolae Garleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2004. "Over-the-Counter Markets," NBER Working Papers 10816, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Lasse Heje Pederson & Markus K Brunnermeier, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," FMG Discussion Papers dp580, Financial Markets Group.
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  4. Dimitri Vayanos & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2006. "A Search-Based Theory of the On-the-Run Phenomenon," NBER Working Papers 12670, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Weill, Pierre-Olivier, 2008. "Liquidity premia in dynamic bargaining markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 66-96, May.
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  8. Guillaume Plantin, 2004. "Self-Fulfilling Liquidity and the Coordination Premium," GSIA Working Papers 2005-E3, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  9. Dimitri Vayanos, 1998. "Transaction costs and asset prices : a dynamic equilibrium model," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 451, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  10. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2005. "Liquidity and Asset Prices," MPRA Paper 24768, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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  14. Dmitrios Vayanos, 2004. "Search and Endogenous Concentration of Liquidity in Asset Markets," Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings 647, Econometric Society.
  15. Darrell Duffie & Nicolae Garleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2006. "Valuation in Over-the-Counter Markets," NBER Working Papers 12020, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "Rationalizability, Learning, and Equilibrium in Games with Strategic Complementarities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(6), pages 1255-77, November.
  17. Pagano, Marco, 1989. "Trading Volume and Asset Liquidity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 255-74, May.
  18. James Dow, 2004. "Is Liquidity Self-Fulfilling?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 895-908, October.
  19. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2007. "Search in asset markets: market structure, liquidity, and welfare," Working Paper 0701, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  20. Cooper, Russell & John, Andrew, 1988. "Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 103(3), pages 441-63, August.
  21. James J. McAndrews & Simon M. Potter, 2002. "Liquidity effects of the events of September 11, 2001," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 59-79.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Makoto Watanabe, 2012. "Middlemen: A Directed Search Equilibrium Approach," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-138/V, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Selcuk, Cemil, 2012. "Distressed sales and liquidity in OTC markets," MPRA Paper 38188, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Andrew Atkeson & Andrea L. Eisfeldt & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2013. "The market for OTC derivatives," Staff Report 479, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  4. Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas, 2013. "Does stock market development always improve firm-level financing? Evidence from Tunisia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 183-208.
  5. Afonso, Gara M. & Lagos, Ricardo, 2014. "Trade Dynamics in the Market for Federal Funds," Working Papers 710, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  6. Guillaume Rocheteau & Pierre‐Olivier Weill, 2011. "Liquidity in Frictional Asset Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43, pages 261-282, October.
  7. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2009. "Crises and Liquidity in Over-the-Counter Markets," NBER Working Papers 15414, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Max Bruche & Anatoli Segura, 2013. "Debt Maturity And The Liquidity Of Secondary Debt Markets," Working Papers wp2013_1303, CEMFI.
  9. Biais, Bruno & Weill, Pierre-Olivier, 2009. "Liquidity Shocks and Order Book Dynamics," IDEI Working Papers 550, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  10. Patrick Bolton & Tano Santos & Jose A. Scheinkman, 2011. "Cream Skimming in Financial Markets," NBER Working Papers 16804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Gara Afonso & Anna Kovner & Antoinette Schoar, 2013. "Trading partners in the interbank lending market," Staff Reports 620, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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