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More on money as a medium of exchange

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Author Info

  • Timothy J. Kehoe
  • Nobuhiro Kiyotaki
  • Randall Wright

Abstract

We extend the analysis of Kiyotaki and Wright, who study an economy in which the different commodities that serve as media of exchange are determined endogenously. Kiyotaki and Wright consider only symmetric, steady-state, pure-strategy equilibria, and find that for some parameter values no such equilibria exist. We consider mixed-strategy equilibria and dynamic equilibria. We prove that a steady-state equilibrium exists for all parameter values and that the number of steady-state equilibria is generically finite. We also show, however, that there may be a continuum of dynamic equilibria. Further, some dynamic equilibria display cycles.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis in its series Staff Report with number 140.

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Date of creation: 1991
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Publication status: Published in Economic Theory (Vol 3, Num 2, 1993, pp. 297-314)
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedmsr:140

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Keywords: Money;

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References

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  1. Aiyagari, S Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1992. "Fiat Money in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 447-64, October.
  2. Kenneth Burdett & Randall Wright, 1994. "Two-sided search," Staff Report 169, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Benhabib, Jess & Day, Richard H., 1982. "A characterization of erratic dynamics in, the overlapping generations model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 37-55, November.
  4. Grandmont Jean-michel, 1983. "On endogenous competitive business cycles," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 8316, CEPREMAP.
  5. Kehoe, Timothy J. & Levine, David K., 1984. "Regularity in overlapping generations exchange economies," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 69-93, April.
  6. Kehoe, Timothy J, 1985. "Multiplicity of Equilibria and Comparative Statics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 119-47, February.
  7. Aiyagari, S Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1991. "Existence of Steady States with Positive Consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(5), pages 901-16, October.
  8. T. J. Kehoe & D. K. Levine, 1982. "Comparative Statics and Perfect Foresight in Infinite Horizon Economies," Working papers 312, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  9. Jovanovic, Boyan & Rosenthal, Robert W., 1986. "Anonymous Sequential Games," Working Papers 86-12, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  10. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-54, August.
  11. Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Randall Wright, 1990. "Search for a Theory of Money," NBER Working Papers 3482, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Azariadis, Costas & Guesnerie, Roger, 1986. "Sunspots and Cycles," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(5), pages 725-37, October.
  13. Balasko, Yves & Cass, David & Shell, Karl, 1980. "Existence of competitive equilibrium in a general overlapping-generations model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 307-322, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Stephen D. Williamson & Randall Wright, 2010. "New Monetarist Economics: models," Staff Report 443, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  2. Wright, Randall, 1995. "Search, evolution, and money," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 181-206.
  3. Sethi, Rajiv, 1999. "Evolutionary stability and media of exchange," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 233-254, November.
  4. Oberfield, Ezra & Trachter, Nicholas, 2012. "Commodity money with frequent search," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(6), pages 2332-2356.
  5. S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1991. "Existence of steady states with positive consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright model," Working Papers 428, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  6. R. O. Cavalcanti & Daniela Puzzello, 2010. "Stationarity without degeneracy in a model of commodity money," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 263-280, May.
  7. Kiyotaki, N. & Wright, R., 1990. "Search For A Theory Of Money," Working papers 90-15, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  8. Brown, Paul M., 1996. "Experimental evidence on money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 583-600, April.
  9. Luo, Guo Ying, 1998. "The evolution of money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 415-458, November.
  10. Phillip M Johnson, 2002. "Essays on Capital Markets: Frictions and Social Forces," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000052, David K. Levine.
  11. Jack Ochs & John Duffy, 1999. "Emergence of Money as a Medium of Exchange: An Experimental Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 847-877, September.
  12. Coles, Melvyn G. & Wright, Randall, 1998. "A Dynamic Equilibrium Model of Search, Bargaining, and Money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 32-54, January.
  13. Bilge Ozturk, 2003. "An evolutionary model of the emergence of the media of exchange," Working Papers hal-00242982, HAL.
  14. Juan-Manuel Renero, 2000. "May the Worst Commodity Standard be the Best? A Re-enactment of "The Crimes of 1873"," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1522, Econometric Society.
  15. Gabriele Camera, 2001. "Search, Dealers, and the Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 680-694, July.
  16. Peter Rupert & Martin Schindler & Andrei Shevchenko & Randall Wright, 2000. "The search-theoretic approach to monetary economics: a primer," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q IV, pages 10-28.
  17. Ellingsen, Tore, 1998. "Payments in Kind," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 244, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 10 Feb 2000.

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