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When for-profits and not-for-profits compete: theory and empirical evidence from retail banking

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  • William R. Emmons
  • Frank A. Schmid

Abstract

We model competition in local deposit markets between for-profit and not-for-profit financial institutions. For-profit retail banks may offer a superior bundle of financial services, but not-for-profit (occupational) credit unions enjoy sponsor subsidies that allow them to capture a share of the local market. The model predicts that greater participation in credit unions in a given county will be associated with higher levels of retail-bank concentration. We find empirical evidence of this association. The ability of credit unions to affect local banking market structure supports the presumption of current banking antitrust analysis that retail banking markets remain local. We identify local economic factors that modulate the nature of competition between banks and credit unions, including income per capita and population density.

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 2004-004.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2004-004

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Keywords: Banks and banking;

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  1. Andew Cohen & Michael Mazzeo, 2004. "Market structure and competition among retail depository institutions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-04, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Andrews, Donald W. K., 1991. "Asymptotic optimality of generalized CL, cross-validation, and generalized cross-validation in regression with heteroskedastic errors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2-3), pages 359-377, February.
  3. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1998. "Cooperatives vs. Outside Ownership," NBER Working Papers 6421, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
  6. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
  7. Amel, Dean F. & Hannan, Timothy H., 1999. "Establishing banking market definitions through estimation of residual deposit supply equations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1667-1690, November.
  8. Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1998. "Cooperatives vs. outside ownership," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19360, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Prager, Robin A & Hannan, Timothy H, 1998. "Do Substantial Horizontal Mergers Generate Significant Price Effects? Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 433-52, December.
  10. Timothy H. Hannan, 2003. "The impact of credit unions on the rates offered for retail deposits by banks and thrift institutions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-06, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Gilbert, R Alton, 1984. "Bank Market Structure and Competition: A Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 617-44, November.
  12. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2000. "Bank competition and concentration: do credit unions matter?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 29-42.
  13. Cleveland, William S. & Devlin, Susan J. & Grosse, Eric, 1988. "Regression by local fitting : Methods, properties, and computational algorithms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 87-114, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Jolly, Robert W. & Koppenhaver, Gary D. & Roe, Joshua D., 2004. "Growth of Large-Scale Credit Unions in Iowa: Implications for Public Policy," Staff General Research Papers 12216, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.

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