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How much would banks be willing to pay to become "too-big-to-fail" and to capture other benefits?

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Author Info

  • Elijah Brewer, III
  • Julapa Jagtiani

Abstract

This paper examines an important aspect of the “too-big-to-fail” (TBTF) policy employed by regulatory agencies in the United States. How much is it worth to become TBTF? How much has the TBTF status added to bank shareholders’ wealth? Using market and accounting data during the merger boom (1991-2004) when larger banks greatly expanded their size through mergers and acquisitions, we find that banking organizations are willing to pay an added premium for mergers that will put them over the asset sizes that are commonly viewed as the thresholds for being TBTF. We estimate at least $14 billion in added premiums for the nine merger deals that brought the organizations over $100 billion in total assets. These added premiums may reflect that perceived benefits of being TBTF and/or other potential benefits associated with size.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City in its series Research Working Paper with number RWP 07-05.

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Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedkrw:rwp07-05

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Keywords: Bank mergers;

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References

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  1. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  2. Lazarus Angbazo & Anthony Saunders, . "The Effect of TBTF Deregulation on Bank Cost of Funds," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-25, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  3. Kenneth A. Carow & Edward J. Kane & Rajesh P. Narayanan, 2005. "How have borrowers fared in banking mega-mergers?," Working Paper Series 2005-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  4. Kane, Edward J, 2000. "Incentives for Banking Megamergers: What Motives Might Regulators Infer from Event-Study Evidence?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 671-701, August.
  5. Thomas M. Hoenig, 1999. "Financial industry megamergers and policy challenges," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 7-13.
  6. Donald P. Morgan & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2005. "Too big to fail after all these years," Staff Reports 220, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  7. Ingo Walter & Markus M. Schmid, 2006. "Do Financial Conglomerates Create or Destroy Economic Value?," Working Papers 06-28, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  8. Huberto M. Ennis & H.S. Malek, 2005. "Bank risk of failure and the too-big-to-fail policy," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 21-44.
  9. Penas, Maria Fabiana & Unal, Haluk, 2004. "Gains in bank mergers: Evidence from the bond markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 149-179, October.
  10. Benston, George J & Hunter, William C & Wall, Larry D, 1995. "Motivations for Bank Mergers and Acquisitions: Enhancing the Deposit Insurance Put Option versus Earnings Diversification," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 777-88, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Hagendorff, Jens & Hernando, Ignacio & Nieto, Maria J. & Wall, Larry D., 2012. "What do premiums paid for bank M&As reflect? The case of the European Union," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 749-759.

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