Verifying the state of financing constraints: evidence from U.S. business credit contracts
AbstractWhich of the strategies for financing constraints in economic models is the most empirically plausible? This paper tests two commonly used models of financing constraints, costly state verification (Townsend, 1979) and moral hazard (Holmstrom and Tirole, 1997), using a comprehensive data set of US small business credit contracts. The data include detailed information about the business, its owner, bank balance sheet information, and the terms of credit. In line with the predictions of models of financing constraints, I find that an additional dollar of net worth accounts for about 30 cents of external finance. More than two thirds of the business credit contracts can be rationalized by one period debt contracts with costly state verification. The parameter values obtained in the costly state verification model imply bankruptcy costs of 28% of expected output and a rate of return ranging between 5% and 8% annually, which are consistent with studies on bankruptcy incidences and returns to entrepreneurial investment. The moral hazard model, however, performs poorly. The correlation between model implied interest rates and actual interest rates paid is close to zero because the bank variables emphasized by this model do not explain loan interest rates.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2011-04.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-02-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-BAN-2011-02-05 (Banking)
- NEP-BEC-2011-02-05 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CTA-2011-02-05 (Contract Theory & Applications)
- NEP-ENT-2011-02-05 (Entrepreneurship)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thomas F. Cooley & Vincenzo Quadrini, 1999.
"Financial Markets and Firm Dynamics,"
99-14, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2010.
"Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young,"
NBER Working Papers
16300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gian Luca Clementi & Hugo Hopenhagn, 2004.
"A Theory of Financing Constraints and Firm Dynamics,"
04-25, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Gina Luca Clementi & Hugo A Hopenhayn, 2006. "A Theory of Financing Constraints and Firm Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 121(1), pages 229-265, 02.
- Gian Luca Clementi & Hugo Hopenhayn, . "A Theory of Financing Constraints and Firm Dynamics," GSIA Working Papers 2002-E9, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
- Gian Luca Clementi & Hugo Hopenhayn, 2002. "A Theory of Financing Constraints and Firm Dynamics," RCER Working Papers 492, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Jason G. Cummins & Kevin A. Hassett & Stephen D. Oliner, 2006.
"Investment Behavior, Observable Expectations, and Internal Funds,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 796-810, June.
- Jason G. Cummins & Kevin A. Hassett & Stephen D. Oliner, 1999. "Investment behavior, observable expectations, and internal funds," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-27, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ian Christensen & Ali Dib, 2008. "The Financial Accelerator in an Estimated New Keynesian Model," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(1), pages 155-178, January.
- Sudheer Chava & Michael R. Roberts, 2008. "How Does Financing Impact Investment? The Role of Debt Covenants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2085-2121, October.
- Francisco Covas & Wouter Denhaan, 2006.
"The role of debt and equity finance over the business cycle,"
2006 Meeting Papers
407, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Francisco Covas & Wouter J. Den Haan, 2012. "The Role of Debt and Equity Finance Over the Business Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(565), pages 1262-1286, December.
- Francisco Covas & Wouter J. den Haan, 2006. "The Role of Debt and Equity Finance over the Business Cycle," Working Papers 06-45, Bank of Canada.
- Covas, Francisco & Den Haan, Wouter, 2007. "The Role of Debt and Equity Finance over the Business Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 6145, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Charles Nolan & Christoph Thoenissen, 2008.
"Financial shocks and the US business cycle,"
CDMA Working Paper Series
200810, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
- Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2005.
"Entrepreneurship, frictions, and wealth,"
Working Paper Series
WP-05-09, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988.
"Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
- Marianne P. Bitler & Alicia M. Robb & John D. Wolken, 2001. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1998 survey of small business finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Apr, pages 183-205.
- Fisher, Jonas D M, 1999.
"Credit Market Imperfections and the Heterogeneous Response of Firms to Monetary Shocks,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 187-211, May.
- Jonas D.M. Fisher, 1998. "Credit market imperfections and the heterogeneous response of firms to monetary shocks," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 96-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Francisco Buera, 2009. "A dynamic model of entrepreneurship with borrowing constraints: theory and evidence," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 443-464, June.
- Meh, Césaire A. & Moran, Kevin, 2010.
"The role of bank capital in the propagation of shocks,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 555-576, March.
- Césaire Meh & Kevin Moran, 2008. "The Role of Bank Capital in the Propagation of Shocks," Working Papers 08-36, Bank of Canada.
- Etienne Wasmer & Philippe Weil, 2004.
"The Macroeconomics of Labor and Credit Market Imperfections,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 944-963, September.
- Wasmer, Etienne & Weil, Philippe, 2000. "The Macroeconomics of Labor and Credit Market Imperfections," IZA Discussion Papers 179, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Wasmer, Etienne & Weil, Philippe, 2002. "The Macroeconomics of Labour and Credit Market Imperfections," CEPR Discussion Papers 3334, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Andrew T. Levin & Fabio M. Natalucci, 2005.
"The Magnitude and Cyclical Behavior of Financial Market Frictions,"
2005 Meeting Papers
443, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- (Kim | Lopez-Salido | Swanson) & Andrew Levin, 2004. "The magnitude and Cyclical Behavior of Financial Market Frictions," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 224, Society for Computational Economics.
- Andrew T. Levin & Fabio M. Natalucci & Egon Zakrajsek, 2004. "The magnitude and cyclical behavior of financial market frictions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-70, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Paolo Angelini & Andrea Generale, 2008. "On the Evolution of Firm Size Distributions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 426-38, March.
- Anna L. Paulson & Robert M. Townsend & Alexander Karaivanov, 2006. "Distinguishing Limited Liability from Moral Hazard in a Model of Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(1), pages 100-144, February.
- Ken Cavalluzzo & John Wolken, 2005.
"Small Business Loan Turndowns, Personal Wealth, and Discrimination,"
The Journal of Business,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2153-2178, November.
- Ken Cavalluzzo & John Wolken, 2002. "Small business loan turndowns, personal wealth and discrimination," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Banks and Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 422-425, May.
- Queijo von Heideken, Virginia, 2008. "How Important are Financial Frictions in the U.S. and the Euro Area?," Working Paper Series 223, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
- Charles T. Carlstrom & Timothy S. Fuerst, 1996.
"Agency costs, net worth, and business fluctuations: a computable general equilibrium analysis,"
9602, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
- Carlstrom, Charles T & Fuerst, Timothy S, 1997. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 893-910, December.
- Rui Albuquerque & Hugo Hopenhayn, 2002.
"Optimal Lending Contracts and Firm Dynamics,"
RCER Working Papers
493, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Ben Bernanke & Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1998.
"The Financial Accelerator in a Quantitative Business Cycle Framework,"
NBER Working Papers
6455, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1999. "The financial accelerator in a quantitative business cycle framework," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 21, pages 1341-1393 Elsevier.
- Joao F. Gomes, 2001. "Financing Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1263-1285, December.
- Christopher A. Hennessy & Toni M. Whited, 2007. "How Costly Is External Financing? Evidence from a Structural Estimation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1705-1745, 08.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kris Vajs).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.