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Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems

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  • David C. Mills, Jr.
  • Travis D. Nesmith

Abstract

Large value payment and securities settlement systems are important components of an economy's financial system. Many such systems are operated by central banks and are liquidity intensive. Central banks often provide inexpensive liquidity to facilitate settlement. This leads to a number of policy questions about the provision of such liquidity. To answer these questions, central banks need to understand what factors influence the timing of settlement. This paper offers a model to better understand intraday patterns of settlement and identifies three factors that influence the timing of settlement: the cost of intraday liquidity, a participant's exposure to settlement risk, and system design. Incorporating all three factors enables our model to explain a number of stylized facts concerning behavior within the Federal Reserve's Fedwire fund and securities systems around a major policy change. In particular, the model captures the different responses of the two systems in both the pattern of settlement and the use of intraday liquidity. The results map out how policy interacts with participants' incentives to influence the use of intraday liquidity and the resultant credit exposure of a central bank. The model, therefore, can inform decision-making at central banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2007-62.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2007-62

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Keywords: Banks and banking; Central ; Interbank market ; Clearing of securities;

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References

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  1. Charles M. Kahn & James McAndrews & William Roberds, 1999. "Settlement risk under gross and net settlement," Staff Reports 86, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  2. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
  3. Bech, Morten L. & Garratt, Rod, 2003. "The intraday liquidity management game," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 198-219, April.
  4. Edward J. Green, 1996. "Money and Debt in the Structure of Payments," Macroeconomics 9609002, EconWPA, revised 09 Sep 1996.
  5. Heidi Willmann Richards, 1995. "Daylight overdraft fees and the Federal Reserve's payment system risk policy," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Dec, pages 1065-1077.
  6. Stacy Panigay Coleman, 2002. "The evolution of the Federal Reserve's intraday credit policies," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 67-84.
  7. David C. Mills, Jr. & Travis D. Nesmith, 2007. "Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-62, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Angelini, P. & Maresca, G. & Russo, D., 1996. "Systemic risk in the netting system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 853-868, June.
  9. Furfine, Craig H, 2003. " Interbank Exposures: Quantifying the Risk of Contagion," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(1), pages 111-28, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Foote, Elizabeth, 2014. "Information asymmetries and spillover risk in settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 179-190.
  2. Morten L. Bech & Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2012. "Settlement liquidity and monetary policy implementation—lessons from the financial crisis," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 3-20.
  3. ANTOINE MARTIN & JAMES McANDREWS, 2010. "Should There Be Intraday Money Markets?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 110-122, 01.
  4. David Mills & Samia Husain, 2013. "Interlinkages between payment and securities settlement systems," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 61-81, February.
  5. Angelo Baglioni & Andrea Monticini, 2013. "Why Does the Interest Rate Decline Over the Day? Evidence from the Liquidity Crisis," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 175-186, October.
  6. Enghin Atalay & Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2008. "The welfare effects of a liquidity-saving mechanism," Staff Reports 331, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  7. repec:fip:fedhep:y:2013:i:qii:p:30-46:n:vol.37no.2 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Tom Roberts, 2011. "The Impact of Operational Events on the Network Structure of the LVTS," Discussion Papers 11-7, Bank of Canada.
  9. Angelo Baglioni & Andrea Monticini, 2008. "The intraday interest rate under a liquidity crisis: the case of August 2007," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Economia e Finanza ief0083, UniversitĂ  Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  10. Merrouche, Ouarda & Schanz, Jochen, 2009. "Banks' intraday liquidity management during operational outages: theory and evidence from the UK payment system," Bank of England working papers 370, Bank of England.
  11. Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2008. "A study of competing designs for a liquidity-saving mechanism," Staff Reports 336, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  12. Andrea Monticini & Francesco Ravazzolo, 2014. "Forecasting the intraday market price of money," DISCE - Working Papers del Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza def10, UniversitĂ  Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  13. Huberto M. Ennis & John A. Weinberg, 2007. "Interest on reserves and daylight credit," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 111-142.
  14. David Marshall & Robert Steigerwald, 2013. "The role of time-critical liquidity in financial markets," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 30-46.
  15. Mills Jr., David C. & Nesmith, Travis D., 2008. "Risk and concentration in payment and securities settlement systems," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 542-553, April.
  16. Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2008. "An economic analysis of liquidity-saving mechanisms," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 25-39.

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